Direct Democracy S.Kerev: The educated Bulgarian students
and applicants come up with remarkable thoughts each year. Here are some parts of them. “It’s probable that the lyrical protagonist is gay because even if around so many fairies he asks: ‘Tell me, sister, where is the karaca*?’ ”
(a Turkish word for a dark skin man) “Because the boatman refused to take her on, Granny Eliitsa yanked the stake and did it herself.” “The Bulgars used to have a strong ‘horse navy’.” Let’s see now what kind of howlers
our guests will come up with today. For the sake of being just like on an exam, each of you will randomly pick a topic
which you will be speaking on. After that they will take my place
and we ask them questions. Well then. Just a moment to leave this.. We have three envelopes, I will turn them upside-down. Like during the exams, mixing them. So I will be starting with the lady. Stefanov: And we are anxious. S. Kerev: You will be picking one envelope. And will be speaking on the topic. So, which number is it? Yordanka Fandakova will be speaking third. Professor Stefanov will be first. S. Kerev: And for you is left number two.
Vulchev: Thank you. Professor Stefanov, let’s see what topic did you choose. You will have one minute wherein you.. ..you will be proclaiming your thesis. Could it be we have left you without a topic? Professor Stefanov. That’s absurd! Are you teasing us?
Just so you can–.. Stefanov: Oh, here it is.
S.Kerev: You are being sneaky. This is so sneaky. Direct Democracy is the topic which Professor Stefanov will be reviewing. Take the TV show host’s place there Stefanov: I tried to sneak away but it didn’t work. S.Kerev: I knew it.
Stefanov: Yeah. You have one minute wherein
you can proclaim your thesis. Stefanov: The Direct Democracy is created in.. ..in Greece, of course. And it had been truly ‘direct’ back then. Probably what is happen- S. Kerev: Don’t open it. Daniel Vulchev. Probably what is happening here is also some form of direct democracy. The direct democracy means that everyone participates in the polis of the civil world directly. Let me tell you though, around 40,000 out of 200,000 people
had the right to vote in Greece. When we talk about the polis, the area of Attica.. Which means though,
the democracy was never true one. Democracy always meant a ‘system of exclusion’. On the hill Pnyx, in other words
the gathering nearby Athens, around 6,000 men had been gathering. And they’d been gathering around 6,000 only when
they had to banish someone from Athens. They had banished great generals,
thinkers such as: Themistocles and they wanted to banish even Aristotle. So, we can see that democracy was created in Greece but let’s keep in mind that besides rights,
it also includes the system of exclus– I mean, it also is a system of exclusion. And some kind of duties which are
bestowed upon these who are.. S.Kereve: Thank you very much! A question from Yordanka Fandakova. The topic is Direct Democracy. Fandakova: I think I can grade his statement, actually.
Because he did a great job, portraying the history.
S.Kerev: Ask him a question. Fandakova: How do you see the participation of the civil community in our modern times here, in Bulgaria? Stefanov: Well, to be honest I see it as becoming weaker and more demoralized. Due to many reasons. There is that doubt in regard of the efficacy of participating. But to be in a democratic system means to believe in your own participation and in what you are doing. Hence, I think, that sort of demotivation leads to an embarrassing stain on today’s Bulgarian democracy. Like the act of buying the votes. We talk about the type of a political campaign which prostitutes exactly through the civil-ness. Which is rather staggering.
That really should be stopped. S.Kereve: Thank you! The host’s question. Direct democracy of Todor Jivkov’s,
direct democracy today – which one do you like better? Stefanov: It’s the today’s one for sure, because its meaning is the right of choice. A choice which is visible. As for before, there was the lie-choice. Such one, that at the end of day is
just summed as a great consensus. S.Kerev: Thank you very much!
Daniel Vulchev’s question. There is one famous thesis of Benjamin Constant’s about the two types of freedom. One is of the ancient nations’ and
the other is of the modern ones’. There is that direct attitude towards democracy. Do you know what’s the difference? Stefanov: Not exactly, but I can review it. S.Kerev: Within 30 seconds. Stefanov: Within 30 seconds.. the Greek civil person is free to participate if certain rules are fulfilled. One had to have the qualification, to be a man, to be born in Greece.. In some Greek poleis existed the rule that one must not have been in the market business the last 10 years. The modern person creates a different idea of freedom – everyone is free and is born free. Truth is, we are chained. This is Russo’s thesis.
S.Kerev: Time’s up! S. Kerev: Are you satisfied with the answer? Mrs. Fandakova, the grade is? Vulchev: Had I known he will explain it so well and in brief, I wouldn’t have wasted my time reading
Benjamin Constant. S.Kerev: The grade is? Based on democratic community, the grade is decided by the audience. I can’t allow myself to decide it. However, it was an interesting review.
S.Kerev: Then, what is the audience’s opinion? Take the place of the host and tell us what is your topic. Oh, this mall. S.Kerev: This was the topic for this year’s
journalism entrance exam. Vulchev: I agree but in my defense..
S.Kerev: You have one minute. Vulchev: ..In my defense I want to say that I have nothing to do with the choice of this topic for the exam. So I hope the applicants will pardon the person who came up with that. But I will try to speak on the topic myself, of course. I will begin though talking about what we call “applicants’ howlers”, they sometimes hide a deep meaning. And I will give you an example. An applicant had written..
S.Kerev: “Oh, this mall”, huh? Vulchev: He’d written something a few years ago.
“Onegin promised Tatyana to ‘always’ love her, but not ‘forever’. I think that this is not a howler though. This is a really deep thought. Now, if someone hasn’t understood
and they state that it’s an applicant’s howler.. I wouldn’t agree. Well then, about the mall. I will begin with the definition of ‘mall’ in Bulgarian. I think there are two accepted meanings. The first, which would probably surprise you,
is an abbreviation of Materially Accountable Legal-entity. So M.A.L. can mean
Materially Accountable Legal-entity. The so said M.A.L. can be
found in numerous normative acts, which I could improvise with although it’d be hard to enlist them completely. At the same time it could be similar to Duty Legal-entity, which is known by its legal definition in the National Codex of Republic of Bulgaria. S.Kerev: We got it but time is up
Vulchev: The second definition is.. S.Kerev: I’ll give you only 10 seconds
for the second definition. Vulchev: The second definition is.. S.Kerev: We are gathering the papers like on the exam. Vulchev: The second definition is related to a large shopping area. Within which there are many shopping brands, usually there is a large parking area, located
in the Metropolitan area. S.Kerev: Fandokova. Fandakova: Where do you usually go shopping,
Mr. Vulchev? Vulchev: Personally.. well, you’ll have to put a sign for used Product Placement in this show,
in case I mention the places. S.Kerev: Don’t answer, then. Fandakova: Within a large shopping area or not?
S.Kerev: Mrs. Stefanov’s question. Stefanov: Um.. May I ask two questions?
S.Kerev: Only one. Stefanov: Okay.
S.Kerev: We want to hear just one. Stefanov: There are two key roles, in my opinion, which are related to the whole idea with the ‘mall’. One is the role of people talking a walk
or such only taking a stroll. The other is the role of the consumer.
Which one dominates in the mall? Vulchev: It’s really hard to say which dominates. But what Professor Stefanov said, in my opinion,
is really important The way of spending your free time changes. Based on that gathering culture which is kept in some, per se, modern Italian towns, the user walks and there are some mini-shops,
some grocery shops.. S.Kerev: Thank you.
I want to ask the staff to give us…
Vulchev: I guess I talk a lot? S.Kerev: ..to ask the colleagues from the news
to give us one additional minute
for Mrs. Fandakova. Got it, my question is – Would you leave the mall in the company
of a girl from there? Vulchev: Well, look. I am already at that age where I can be in the company of any girl. S.Kerev: Thank you very much! You can take
your place again. Yordanka Fandakova.
Open the envelope, please. I am also at that age. Internet Revolution. You have one minute. Fandakova: This topic is related to the first we spoke about, actually. About the literacy. Everyone should appreciate
the times and the world we live in. We should accept the technological
advances in a positive way. It’s important to put them into use but
to be aware of the risks, as well. This is really important, especially for the parents to be aware of the danger in the cyber world and the involvement of children there. In the sense of protecting the children from possible traps while they are browsing the web. S.Kerev: Let’s begin with Professor Stefanov’s question. Stefanov: Due to the internet culture being in close relationship with the access of information, my question is – To what degree do you believe the information, to what degree could it be gradually and well stored as something informative? Because there is another thesis – the storage of quantity of non-structured information could lead to stupidity. Fandakova: I am from the old generation and I admit that the information which could be defined as such is something I always question. I either look for alternative sources or analyse it myself. That way I can judge whether the information is
true one or not. S.Kerev: Boyan Vulchev Vulchev: Well, in my opinion, that which we have as a happening factor in the cyber world and as a whole when it comes to technology, the role of the teacher is variable.
I think we can all agree on this one. I would ask Mrs. Fandakova which are some of the fundamental things that play a typical role in the new teaching pattern in her opinion? Fandakova: The usage of technology during
the educating process but under no
circumstances to overpower the role of the teacher. There are such models and it is practised already. You began the distribution of computers but
this is not enough, of course. The development of good models,
good lessons if I may say, and their direct usage during lessons could lead to a raise of the children’s interest when
it comes to schooling. S.Kerev: Thank you.
Fandakova: Which would lead to
a raise of the schooling quality. S.Kerev: The host’s question – 30 minutes in front of the computer or 30 minutes
in the café-bar with a friend? Fandakova: 30 minutes spent in reading a book. S.Kerev: Thank you very much! I promised our guests the possibility to ask me one question each, related to their topics. Let’s begin with topic number one. Stefanov: My question is –
Unlike the ancient Greeks we are
contemporary Bulgarians. They were under direct democracy, we are under representative democracy. Are you content with the people who represent us
in the parliament? S.Kerev: I am not content, that’s why I plan voting in the election for president and in local mayor elections. Audience: Bravo! Vulchev: I will be asking an easier and
far more neutral question. Do you know what’s the other term for
‘Hexamethylenetetramine’? I am joking. The real question now. S.Kerev: I would’ve answered with ‘marijuana’. Vulchev: Yeah, I know– Oh, no, no. It’s urotropine. Well, it doesn’t matter. I meant to ask,
do you think that by the end of this mandate there will be a new approved law in the Education sector? S.Kerev: No!
Vulchev: Correct. Fandakova: It’s like a challenge for Sergei Ignatov.
Vulchev: It was a joke. Tell us your opinion, will the cyber world ‘overthrow’ the real world’s communication between people? S.Kerev: There is nothing nicer than a kiss
in the real world.