Capitalismo, Socialismo e Comunismo Desmistificando a Esquerda

Capitalismo, Socialismo e Comunismo   Desmistificando a Esquerda


Hi, how are you? My name is Marcos. I wanted to ask you one thing: Do you know what communism is? Or socialism? Or capitalism? Do you really know what each of these things mean? Because a lot of people nowadays think that they know and talk a lot of very wrong things out there. And it’s kind of important that you know what all these things are and what they aren’t, capitalism, socialism, communism Why? The current president of Brazil was elected on the promise that he would end communism. The point is … Brazil was never communist or socialist. It did not even come close to that. And maybe I should explain to you why. To begin with, I think you need to know what each of these things is. Let’s talk about what capitalism is. What is capitalism? Capitalism is an economic system aimed at profit. And why does capitalism always want profit? Because the goal of capitalism is to always have more money. Everyone needs to have more money, even if you do not want to be rich. Why? Because you need to pay your bills every month. You need to buy food, clothes, pay the rent and so on. But why is capitalism so criticized? Why do people complain about capitalism so much? Capitalism is the exploitation of the worker. How so? In order to sell something in capitalism you have to own the means of production. And what are means of production? Means of production are factories, farms, mining companies, bakeries, markets, machines … Everything or all places where we produce things, in which we do a service. You can think of means of production as: what it takes to be able to work. Why you need to own the means of production to be able to sell something? Because the owner of the means of production will sell the products that are made there. And the worker will sell his work to make these products. We say sell your labour because in exchange for your labour you get money. Capitalism. That’s how it works. What is the problem with this system? The problem with this system is: Who am I selling my labour force to? You will sell the labor force the owner of the means of production, of these factories, which is the capitalist. The point is that the capitalist does not have this factory for no reason, and he does not have this factory out of kindness. The capitalist will not hire you because you need a job. They’ll hire you because they need an employee. And why does they need an employee? Because a person alone will not be able to take care of all the machines in a factory. Someone has to make the products. And it is impossible to have that only the owner of the factory working in the factory and making the products by himself. So that’s why it’s selling one’s labour; the guy needs somebody to work for him and you – who owns no factory – you need to work to make money. Right? But then why do we say it’s exploitation? Well, because … How do you calculate the value of a product? There are two ways to calculate the value of a product. The one capitalism uses is: you take the value of the raw materials, that is, let’s take a bakery as an example. What is the value of a loaf of bread? It is the value of how much flour, how much water, how much yeast and how much any other ingredient that you will use to make a loaf of bread. Let’s say that … a loaf of bread costs $ 1.00. Of course, a loaf of bread does not cost $ 1.00 today. Still. Just to simplify things, Let’s say that a loaf of bread, in order to make a loaf of bread you spend $ 1.00 on raw materials. But you need someone to make this bread and this person will put their energy, their time, their knowledge of baking in that bread. For every loaf they make you pay them $ 0.50 and the bread itself costs $ 1.00. So for every loaf of bread a person makes the owner of this bakery – the capitalist – spends $ 1.50. What is profit? Profit is the surplus. The surplus of what? If you spend $ 1.50 for each loaf of bread made, this $ 1.50 has to be used to pay the raw material and labor. So if you want to earn some money for yourself, you need to sell that bread at a higher price than it costs you to make it. Okay? So if the bread costs $ 1.50. You need to sell it at $ 2.00, or $ 2.50. or $ 3.00. It depends. What’s the problem with that? How much will you pay your baker? Because, according to capitalist logic, you only have to pay them $ 0.50 cents which is the value of their labor. The question is: the baker was the one who made that bread. And that bread is worth $ 1.50. If you’ll only pay $ 0.50 to the baker and you’re going to sell the bread at $ 2.00 to make a profit this means that you are pocketing $ 1.50. Even if $ 1.00 of that goes into another loaf of bread, the worker is not receiving the money- the total value of their labour. This is where the second way of calculating the value of a product comes in. Which is the labour. It is not only the raw material that was used it is also the labour time of those who made that product. If I spend an hour of my day making this bread It’s not fair that I receive less than the bread is worth. You see? Especially since I don’t have the right to sell that bread. You are selling this bread in my place and you’re getting more money than I am. And why is this unfair? Because I’m the one making the bread, not you. Not the capitalist — the worker. Without the worker there, and without the knowledge of the worker, that capitalist would not get the money, because the product would not exist. Then you will say: Okay, but what if the capitalist makes the bread? Then they are no longer just the capitalist. They are also their own employee. And that’s a diferent situation. The point is: we say that capitalism is exploitative because for it to exist, for any company to exist, it needs profit and, to make a profit, it needs to pay the worker less than they are worth, less than they produce. You see? Well, this is just the beginning of the problem with capitalism. Because to increase your profit you can do several things. You can, for example, sell the product for a much larger price than it costs and at the same time, pay the worker much less than they’re worth. For example, you can sell this bread that costs you $ 1.50 to make for R $ 3.00 and pay the worker only $ 0.25. In this way, you have a very big profit, for a very small cost. You can also use cheaper raw materials. This may all seem like tips on how to get rich, but the point you need to remember is: the worker who is making that bread is not receiving this money and, at the end of the day, the one who gets rich is not the baker, it is the owner of the bakery. We call this “surplus value”. What is “surplus value”? The surplus is the difference between your salary and how much you’re really worth, that is, your salary will always be lower than the labour, than the product you made is really worth. What’s the problem with that? The problem is that your boss the owner, the capitalist, he will always get richer on top of your work. He will always increase his profit, selling more and more products made by you. However your salary will not grow at the same pace. You know this. The only way for a baker to get rich, earn profit, would be if he opened a bakery himself, in which he makes and sells the bread. But it’s not possible for everyone to own their own factory, their own bakery, their own business. Because if everyone owns a business, who is going to work for someone? Who is going to make the products? Now, it is interesting to mention what the communists’ definition of capitalism is: it is the private ownership of the means of production. If the means of production are the factories, everything that we need to make something, then private property is the capitalist who owns that factory. Capitalists define capitalism as something else; they define capitalism as a voluntary exchange of goods, of products. The twist is: the voluntary exchange of goods occurred before capitalism, before the industrial revolution. When people made their own products. The farmer he sold the milk of his cows, or he sold his cows, or he sold his sheep, or he sold the wool of his sheep, but everyone sold what they had. Capitalism does not work like this, because after the industrial revolution when we really started to have factories and to have machines doing much of the work. You have a person who owns the factory, and the things in that factory, and you have a worker who works in the factory. For capitalism to work you need that most people to not own any means of production. And if you do not own the means of production you don’t get even close of getting the value of your labour. And then how will you get rich if the little amount of money you get you are spending to survive? You know? To pay your rent, to buy food at the end of the month, to pay the electricity, water, or internet bill … The little money you have left, if you have any left (because we know that by the end of the month there is no money left) is not the profit, because you do not get the profit from the labour. The boss is the one who keeps your profit, he owns the factory. Does this seem fair? Because, well, the capitalists say that this is just, because they take are a risk. The point is, they’re taking a risk only at first. When they’re also working. You see? For instance, the owner of the corner store, the owner of the neighborhood bar, are still a workers. They are is what we call petit bourgeois. Because they own the store, but they are the ones who work in the store. They are there every day, all day long, selling the products; they don’t have employees, so they aren’t exploiting anyone. They get the full value for their labour. And they get the profit. The point is, when you hire a worker, an employee, you’re already exploring them, because they will not receive the full value of their labour; they will not get the total money for the things they sold, because you want the profit. Right? Why hire more workers? You hire them, because you want to increase production, you want to increase the amount of things you produce and sell. Why did you do that? Because you want more profit. From the moment you begin to seek profit to enrich yourself, not only to survive, and you hire new employees, new workers and you pay them less than the money they get you, that is, you pay them a lower salary than the total value of the product they are producing and selling for you This is exploitation. You’re keeping some of their money. and you’re stealing from them the opportunity to grow to be able to get rich. Do get it? I do not know if you can understand. Because that is the problem of capitalism; few people will get rich, because you need most of the people to be working in the factories. So it may even be that you are- that you have been a worker in the beginning, that you took risks in the beginning, but the fact is: when you’re at Bill Gates’ level, for example, in which you own a billionaire multinational, You don’t even have to work anymore. You do not step on your factories anymore, unless you want to visit, but it’s not you running the machines, it’s not you producing the product, it is not you selling it to someone; you only get the profit. And this is exploitation. But what is the alternative to this? It’s communism. But what is communism? Before we talk about communism, we need to talk about socialism. Socialism- Why are we going to talk about socialism before we talk about communism? Because socialism is the phase of transition between capitalism and communism. That is, socialism is how we will change society to get to communism. And I’m going to get to communism soon, to explain what it is. What is socialism? Socialism the socialization of the means of production. What is socialization? It’s making everyone an owner. It is making possible for everyone to have access to that. So socializing the means of production means to ensure that not one person owns the factory, but that all workers are owners of the factory. And it means also that you do not do things for profit but for social welfare. If in capitalism, you will make bread to sell it and make a profit and get richer; in socialism, you will make bread so that everyone can eat bread. Simple. Right? People say that socialism is everyone equal in poverty, but that’s not right. Socialism wants everyone equal in good living conditions. You can call that wealth if you want. The point is, that the goal is not to accumulate money, it is not profit, is well-being. How does this work — everyone owning the factories? Weel, not literally, everyone. The point is that there is not only one owner, you do not have a Bill Gates being the owner of Microsoft; you have all Microsoft workers owing Microsoft. Things are not produced on a gigantic scale so you can mess with things like supply and demand (we’ll talk about this another time) you produce things to meet people’s needs. A phrase that sums up socialism and communism very well is: from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs If I can make bread I’ll work in a bakery and do it. And I will not produce 40 loaves of bread, I will produce how many loaves of bread are really needed to feed the surrounding population that day. I’m not going to produce 100 loaves of bread either so they get stale and people end up eating stale bread in three weeks time, for instance. I’m going to spend the same amount of things as a capitalist bakery only in a more efficient way, with more control and without waste. Doesn’t that sound good? If, under capitalism, you sell things for a higher price than you spent in order to make them, so you profit; under socialism, you sell things for the price they are really worth; that is, if under capitalism, bread would cost $ 2.00, $ 2.50, or $ 3.00, under socialism, it will cost $ 1.50; that’s how much you needed to spend to make a loaf of bread and to pay the worker. It is not bad. Does it sound bad to you? If it sounds bad to you, tell me why? But it is not. Socialism is this: you seeking to supply the needs of your community. You doing things out of solidarity, not out of greed. So what is the difference between socialism and communism? The difference is that under socialism you still have the State. What is the State? It’s the government. It is the mayors, the presidents, this kind of things, the governors, the people who, preferably, we’ve elected to command everything. It’s what people call a strong state, in fact, socialism is strong state, the communism is not, but we will soon talk about communism. What is the role of the State in socialism? Its function is to organize the distribution of income, of products, of riches, of necessities, But why do we need socialism before communism? Because if socialism is the transition phase between capitalism and communism, the role of the State in socialism is to make capitalism outdated, to make profit outdated, to make having a company just to get rich, senseless. How do you do this? Nationalize everything. What is nationalization? Rather than the company belonging to an entrepreneur, to a millionaire, to Bill Gates, the company belongs to the state. And the idea is that, under socialism, the State is made by the people, not just some random person, not just a politician we’ve elected, but a politician who listens to the people, that only does what the people want. And this state, this government, this president … what’s its job? Its job is to nationalize these companies, that is, to make the State their owner and, as a result, society their owner and make them work for the benefit of society. This makes the products cheaper and make people prefer to buy from these state-owned companies. In this way, capitalist companies simply cannot compete. It is very important to emphasize this: socialism is not any state. Socialism it is a state of the workers, one that nationalizes companies. Venezuela is not a socialist country, because in Venezuela 70% of the companies are private, 70% of companies are capitalist. Besides, Venezuela has never declared it is a socialist country. So … quite complicated. Another thing that is important to remember is that socialism is not definitive; things will not stop at socialism, they cannot stop at socialism; things have to go on to communism. Socialism is only the transition phase, It’s just that we do to transform society towards communism. So what is communism? Communism is the idea that people no longer need neither the state nor capitalism, they don’t need a central government, nor money; people will govern themselves by themselves. How so? If you live in a more or less poor neighborhood or sometimes even if you live in a wealthy neighborhood it is possible that it has an residents’ association, which happens when all residents or most of them come together and discuss community problems and try to solve them by themselves. Communism will work more or less like this; there is no state that will help you; not a city hall, no government, no governor, no president, and also no companies. People come together, discuss what the problems are, and solve them. And why have no money anymore? Well, under socialism there is still money, but under communism, there’s none. Because you won’t need money to get things. Capitalism works around money. If under capitalism you have no money you don’t have things. but under communism, no. Under communism, I make bread because I can make bread because I like to make bread, and because my community needs bread. And under communism, You will not keep it for yourself unless somebody gives you something back. No, under communism you want people to have this bread. This is why you need to have socialism to come before, to shape society in a way to make no one want, because it’s not even necessary to hoard everything. Under communism, you won’t be the only person who can make bread; and if you are the only person of your community who knows how to make bread and you don’t want to make it, others will likely prefer to exclude you from the community and learn to make bread themselves and then they will make it for each other. This is communism, it is the voluntary exchange of help. Under communism, you’ll still have the means of production, you’ll still have factories, you’ll still have farms, because these things are necessary. Everyone still needs to eat, we still need to have products, we still need cars, clothes, this kind of stuff. The point is that everyone will own them and these things will not be made for a price; they will be made because people need them. In this video I don’t want to go into too much detail about all of this; I just want to give you this introduction: capitalism is a system that exploits the worker; socialism is the transition from this system to communism which is a system where people help each other in what they need and what they want. The ultimate goal of communism is that no one needs to work eight hours a day, 40 hours per week to get just enough money to survive, sometimes. That’s not it. Communism wants everyone to live their life to the fullest, without worrying about money. It’s hard to think this is bad. Is it not? Some things that may be going through your mind are, for instance: this will never work, because the human beings are selfish, or the instances in which people have tried socialism, it has gone wrong. Did it really, though? I’ll talk about this in an upcoming video, I just wanted to give you an introduction, and help you understand what these things really are and if we can talk and you can tell me what questions you have. Are there any? Was anything unclear? Was there anything you did not understand or that you still have a problem with? Because this is just the beginning, It’s just the first video. And my goal here is to explain it all clearly. Because there’s a reason some people want you to believe that socialism does not work and that socialism is cruel and it is because these people want to remain in power. Well, that’s it, I hope you liked it, I hope it was clear. And if it was not, I can try again. Because I don’t want to give up helping people understand that socialism is the way. Fine? So, see you next time. Bye. The means of production are– your kitten. Just kidding. The means of production are- Koda, Koda, I’m trying to talk about means of production, Koda. Koda, you’re in front of the light, Koda. What a cute thing! You’re the cutest thing! Subtitles by @Linamachadocm

25 Comments on "Capitalismo, Socialismo e Comunismo Desmistificando a Esquerda"


  1. 1 – Passou metade do vídeo tagarelando sobre capitalismo, a partir do momento que começou falar sobre socialismo e controle operário sobre o meio de produção, eu lembrei da Fábrica Flaskô aqui no Brasil de metodologia socialista, afundou em dívida e para salvar a empresa, os operários resolveram fazer um pedido de estatização, onde milhões de pagadores de impostos assumiriam as dívidas de empresa socialista.

    2 – ''Socialismo é transição do comunismo'' – Somente um crente na necromancia marxista pode acreditar que um Estado totalitário [socialista] pode inevitavelmente e de maneira virtualmente instantânea se transformar em seu oposto (Comunismo). E mais, Marx nunca demostrou como o sistema de produção poderia ser organizado nessa etapa do comunismo, na qual não haveria nem um livre mercado de iniciativa privada e nem um planejamento centralizado pelo Estado, totalmente DEVANEIO da realidade.

    3 – Só pra dar outro exemplo para acabar com toda sua baboseira. A Coréia do sul que era pior que as favelas do rio de janeiro nos anos 60, através do Estado e do Capitalismo, criaram as bases para um crescimento sustentável e uma melhoria na condição de vida da população coreana como nunca antes visto na penisula coreana, hoje os burgueses malvados da Chaebols exportam tecnologia de alta qualidade para o mundo inteiro e o PIB per capita dos coreanos é o mesmo da Itália. Enquanto isso a CORÉIA DO NORTE É UMA BOSTA.

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  2. Já consigo prever o contra-argumento ''Ah mas coréia do norte não é socialista, as experiências ditos socialistas do século 20 não eram socialismo, socialismo é democracia, é participação popular e não de uma elite burocrática militar russa''
    A absurda lógica de mesclar socialismo e democracia, a ideia de que o Estado deve ser dono de todos os recursos e meios de produção e ainda assim preservar e manter a liberdade para todos NÃO FAZ SENTIDO numa sociedade socialista. Um exemplo é liberdade de imprensa numa sociedade socialista-democrática: Uma constituição que garanta a “liberdade de imprensa” não tem sentido numa sociedade socialista. O ponto é que onde quer que o governo detenha a propriedade de todo o papel de imprensa, o Estado, terá que decidir como alocar recursos escassos de papéis e o que imprimir neles. Obviamente o Estado vai alocar todo o seu recursos de capital de imprensa apenas àqueles que o defendem e apoiam. Uma imprensa livre, mais uma vez repito, se torna uma piada numa sociedade socialista; além disso, por que um governo socialista deveria alocar qualquer quantidade considerável de seus escassos recursos para anti-socialistas?????

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  3. 9:20 "quem é q vai trabalhar quemeh q vai fazer os produtos se todos é burgues"

    essa é muito facil de refutar, trabalho infantil, viva ancapismo!!!

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  4. This is great! I've been looking for more Portuguese-speaking leftist channels. Keep up the good work, comrade

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  5. eu fiquei com uma dúvida sobre o exemplo do pão que ele deu. o pao custa 1,50 para ser produzido e o proprietário só pagou 0,50 pela mão de obra. ao vender o pão por 2, o apresentador disse que o empresário embolsa 1,50, mas não deveria ser apenas 0,50? e porque seria justo pagar ao trabalhador 1,50 se o trabalhador não pagou pela matéria prima? se alguém puder me explicar ficaria grato

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  6. Um pão custa 2 reais, desses 2 reais voce tira 1 real de matéria prima e 0,5 reais de mão de obras, quanto sobra? 0,5 reais que é o lucro/remuneração de quem investiu dinheiro e assumiu o risco de não vender e perder o dinheiro investido, o fornecedor de matéria prima e o funcionário não querem saber se o pão foi vendido ou não, no fim do mês tem fatura e contracheque para pagar. o malvadão capitalista é quem assume os riscos sozinho.

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  7. Um Comunista: Mulheres são oprimidas, homens não!!!

    Comunista definindo coisas:
    Opressão = Alguém exercendo poder sobre outro.

    Poder = Poder físico (força), poder financeiro (dinheiro), poder psicológico (inteligência)

    Se vc exerce seu poder vc é opressor, portanto ser oprimido é não ter poder.

    Portanto dizer q mulher é oprimida é dizer que elas são fracas pobres e burras. Pq se n fosse teriam poder e aí a opressão não ocorreria pq opressão é exercida por quem tem poder.

    Ou vc admite ser sexista e que mulheres são fracas, burras e por isso são oprimidas.

    Ou vc admite que não são fracas portanto tem poder e não são oprimidas.

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  8. Ótimo vídeo, agora se alguém entendido do assunto puder me ajudar, eu não entendi como o capitalista vai pagar mais para o trabalhador do que o preço por produto vendido. Tipo preço do pão = R$2 reais, isso significa que o capitalista deve pagar o mesmo valor ou mais para o trabalhador por pão produzido? Como faz isso sem falir? Me ajudem que eu não entendi bem

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  9. Didática é tudo, camarada. Esse é o tipo de vídeo para se compartilhar com a classe trabalhadora, com pai, mãe, tia e tio, pra quem hoje esses conceitos são tão equivocados. Vou compartilhar aqui 🙂
    Continue o trabalho!

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  10. Amei o vídeo! Voce foi super didatico, brigada pelo esclarecimento e trabalho, ficou mt claro! 💛 Gostaria que voce falasse mais sobre a perguntinha que vc fez aos 24:40 "Será que deu mesmo errado o socialismo?"
    Mt obrigadaa bjs

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  11. Ave, tava faltando muito um conteúdo desse ex-pli-ca-di-nho no youtube! Valeu demais, ficou muito bom e fácil de entender, para iniciantes 😉

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  12. Explica o Fascismo e o Nazismo… parece que você sabe TUDO…
    Ridículo cara, você não sabe BOSTA NENHUMA SOBRE CAPITALISMO.
    A teoria da Mais Valia já foi detonada nos anos 20.

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  13. Por que será que quando eu pesquiso qual é o sistema do governo da venezuela aparece lá que ele é um país socialista. E meu profersso também disse que esse país é socialista?

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