Civil Rights movement, part 2

Civil Rights movement, part 2


All right, so today we’re gonna continue
on with the civil rights movement. So far if you look at that essay
that I’ve asked you to if you decide to write this one. I’m asking you to kind of
set the stage here and that is you’ve got these national
organizations like NAACP and a core. And they have built a network of
African-Americans in the South and North who are going to try to
move forward in the postwar period in ending this segregation system. We’ve also had the federal government
take whatever actions it can. First of all,
with the Brown versus Board of Education. And then we’ve got Truman who’s
desegregated the armed forces. The shift now moves to the South,
and it moves to the African-American population in the South,
actually standing up to these policies, and demonstrating against them, and
calling public attention to them. And what happens now is that the eyes
of the country turn to segregation, our segregation system in a way
that hadn’t done for 70 years. We turned a blind eye to what certain
states are doing with the citizens. For again, about 70 years,
from the 1880s through the 1950s. The actions in Little Rock, Arkansas with
and the kind of bigotry that’s coming out. It’s unseemly to the rest of
the country in the post war period, is pictured down here. Now I gave you the manifesto last time,
right? I wanna make sure that I got
this across to you guys. This is a warning shot,
the Southern Manifesto is a warning shot to the National Democratic Party. It’s not so subtle warning to
the National Democratic Party that if the Democratic Party
pursues in ending our way of life, down here through federal intervention and the federal overturning of our state,
city, and county laws. Well, the Democratic Party might
not should count on Southern white Democrats continuing to vote for
that party, is a warning to them. And this is a very big concern for
the National Democratic Party. It’s going to make a lot of them wonder,
can we afford to alienate all these Southern whites who might not
be in the Democratic Party anymore. That now currently they
won’t go the Republicans, they’re not sure what they’re gonna do. They had the Dixiecrat thing, but
what’s gonna happen over the coming years is Republican Party’s gonna
kind of rebrand itself. And take on anti federal
government language that plays well with frustrated or angry Southern
whites who wanted to keep their system and I’ll deal with that a bit more later. But to come back to what I was saying,
the civil rights movement now shifts to the people in the South, and the very
first, who got Rosa Parks last time? We did got Rosa Parks, right? We’re ready for the SCLC, I hadn’t
talked about what the response was, right, the boycott, okay. So here’s an ID for you
the Southern Christian Leadership Council. One more group that in
this case very important group in bringing the segregation
system to an end. So the Southern Christian
Leadership Council is made up of Southern black and
white ministers. Southern black and
white ministers who realize that they’ve got a role to play now in helping
organize African-American and sympathetic whites in the South
towards ending segregation. It’s gonna take leadership and
they’re the ones to step forward. And it makes perfect sense, most
Southern black men didn’t hold office. They wouldn’t be what
we would call orators, they might be a middle class
black insurance salesman. You might be an educator would
have a pretty good change of, but then again, well, there’s some education,
but it’s restricted. I guess what I wanna get at is there’s not
a lot of leadership with large groups, among African-American men and
women in the South. But the most natural one is black
ministers, they’re orators. They get up regularly and
speak in front of groups. And what happens now is that the churches
of the South, black churches of the South became the rallying point for
the black community to come together, and become almost like a union,
as far as like solidarity. We are gonna have to act together if
we’re gonna get anything changed. And this is where we see black
ministers emerge as the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. And none more famous than
Martin Luther King, Jr., so you’d wanna associate him with this ID. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
well-educated, great orator, minister, young man,
probably in his late 30s early 40s, emerges as the leader whose
got a message for an approach. And his approach is resistance
to the segregation laws but non-violent resistance. Not going to throw Molotov
cocktails into buses in Montgomery, we’re going to not use
the buses of Montgomery. So what comes out of this Rosa Parks
arrest leads to an outpouring in Montgomery of frustrated African-Americans
who now want to do something. They come to a church, they say,
what do we do about this? They talk about the different things, and
they decide with the minister leadership, what we’re going to do is we’re going to
boycott the bus system in Montgomery. We’re going to refuse to participate and
go sit in the back of the bus, that is prescribed by city law
says that blacks have to sit here. We’re going to resist
the segregation system and the boycott last for about seven months. A lot of the white leadership and
white community in Montgomery thought that these angry blacks at the community
of this church would give up on this idea. There is no way that
they could maintain it. Blacks were at least half of
the customers on buses in the city. But blacks refused to use the bus. They said, we’re not gonna do it,
we’re not gonna participate in this. They arrange carpools, they walked,
they ride bikes all over town, and it goes on and on. But the cool thing is, because they’re led
by ministers and because this is taking place in churches, it maintains
their spirit through a long march. And they get through it, and
finally, by the end middle class, affluent whites who, especially white
women, who are frustrated at their black lady cook hasn’t arrived on time,
or the woman who’s supposed to welcome kids because they had a lot of domestic
servants and they were late all the time. They were like,
cuz they couldn’t use the bus system. They finally started
bugging their husbands and saying this seems kinda ridiculous. And then finally the city is saying
we’re losing all this money, the bus system has lost
all kinds of revenue. It’s gonna cost the taxpayers, so finally the city of Montgomery
nixes the law, right? They remov the laws and they say,
they desegregate the buses. That’s the first success of the civil
rights movement on the ground by people saying we’re not
going to live with this. And now it’s gonna spread, but
it’s going to be dangerous. I got to tell you that to resist. We’ll see a lot of violence unleashed
on black activists who tried to resist the system as we go forward and
it’ll be hard to maintain this momentum. I will say this, Martin Luther King,
probably was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi. Have you ever heard of Gandhi of India? He stood up to British imperialism with
his same approach about 1947, 48 which is they came out in large numbers, protested
against British occupation policies. And British forces came out and
beat them and they shot many, but they brutalized the Indian people
who came out to demonstrate. And those images of them brutalizing
these people are coming up peacefully to protest get showed back in England and
in France, and other Western countries. And it just seems such a departure from
what the world was supposed to be about after World War II. So finally, the public opinion in
England says, it’s not right for us to continue to treat these
people that we’ve dominated for 300 years in this state of control. And so India gave finally the people
of India their freedom and to allow themselves to go forward. And that non-violent resistance
seems to have been picked up by, I think by Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders of the South
had come out of evangelical movement. All right,
now the next ID that I want you to have, there’s lots of different
people who do this ultimately. But what started in Montgomery,
now comes up to Greensboro for a fluent middle class African American
college students show up one day. I guess they decided, we’re gonna do this. We’re gonna resist these policies. They go into a restaurant at
a Woolworths department store. They had restaurants in the department
store and the department store or the restaurant did not serve anyone,
but whites. And these four young men come in,
they sit down at the counter and they asked for menus. And the waitress comes by and
goes, you all, you can’t eat here. If you want food,
go around the back and you can order. We’ll put in paper bag, so
you can take it with you. That’s how it works. And they said, we want menus and then they’re told to leave and
they’re like this isn’t right. And so the police are called in and
they’re taking down town, and that leads people of Greensboro to show up
at the wolves worth, and begin to pick it. Saying this store, a retail store is
we’re not gonna shop here anymore, because of you don’t
hire African Americans. You don’t let African Americans eat here. You are supporters of this racist policy,
which is un-American and it’s not right. Counter-protesters come out and say,
brother mean things to people and hold up signs that are demeaning. Spreads to other get arrested,
pretty sure they get arrested. But what I’d like you to know now is
what begins to happen is Southern white bigots are very upset about the effort
of independent black people to try to challenge the system. And so when these students
attempt it somewhere else, white, I guess you call vigilantes. We’ll deal with this. We don’t need the police in here. We’ll come in here in Greensboro. As you can see what they’re doing here,
they’re pouring food and such over these students and I’m sure they’re saying
all kinds of ugly, horrible things. And they’re quite smug and
arrogant in their attitudes, but this is just the beginning of Southern
whites beginning to unleash on African Americans who tried to
independently stand up to segregations. It becomes increasingly dangerous for
African Americans to risk themselves. Also when the police do show up, they genuinely are not kind to these
people as they’re arresting them and it takes a lot of bravery to do
the things they’re gonna do. Okay, the civil rights
movement is also now gonna try to bring
the federal government in. Do you think the Southern states
are gonna desegregate on their own? They’d like it if they would, right? The country would like it if they’d say,
this is a thing of a bygone past. And we’re different now, but
they’re not gonna do it and they need outside federal pressure. The nation itself has got to say,
you can’t do this anymore. That means political will
has got to be increased. That means people outside the South, I’ve got to say, we’re going to do
something through the federal legislation. Now, this is your next ID
called the Freedom Rides. An idea emerges among
the civil rights movement. I think CORE is especially involved in
this one, Congress of Racial Equality. They have an idea, how can we get
the courts back into the situation here? And they decide that interstate buses
like Greyhound, that’s interstate travel. You can buy a ticket in Philadelphia for
Dallas. That’s interstate commerce. That’s in the purview of
the federal government. And so what they do is they buy a ticket
in Philadelphia to go to Dallas. And when you get on, when you’re
at the bus station Philadelphia, there’s no segregated waiting rooms. But as soon as you cross over into DC,
DC had segregation and then you go into Virginia,
it’s segregated system. So the Freedom Riders are white and black college students from the North and
cower. Delegates are cower activists. Get on buses, buy tickets. And when soon as they get into
cross state lines into the South, when they get off the bus,
they purposefully switch. Whites go into black waiting rooms,
blacks go into white waiting rooms. And they’re formally challenging
the state laws requiring them to not enter into this other room. They do that, so that they can bring
it into the federal judicial system. And at least get these
interstate commerce or interstate travel to be desegregated,
because that would fall into the purview. The problem is they don’t have a lot
of problems when they’re in Virginia, North Carolina. But when they get into Alabama and
Mississippi and as information, as this is cutting the news, Southern
white vigilantes start getting really violent towards these Freedom Riders and
they start looking for them. And probably the worst moment all is on
Mother’s Day at 1961, a greyhound bus. On a Sunday morning,
some local people after church, they see a greyhound bus going and
they chase it down, force it off the road. They look to see if there’s
any Freedom Riders on it. There are they barricade the door and
they set the thing on fire, and the only reason these people
survive is cuz they kick at the glass window at the back,
and they get out of it. This is gonna force
John F Kennedy to take action and that’s another thing I
wanted to let you know. John F Kennedy, the newly elected
democratic president is worried he has not done much about civil rights, because he
barely won the election against Nixon. I mean, like squeaker election. What happens if the Democratic Party
goes forward with anti-segregation laws? Will Democratic Party be able to win
national elections is the big question for him, but this action by violence
against the Freedom Riders leads him to ask his attorney general
who happens to be his brother. By the way, the courts end up taking
up this issue because CORE and probably the NAACP enter into
a suit against Greyhound and against those states for
their segregation policies. And the courts rule that, in fact, they
can’t do this, because it’s a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment,
equal protection for American citizens. So this is a police officer
taking out somebody who’s gone into a white waiting room. Finally, after the violence that has
been unleashed on the Freedom Riders, the president calls up the National Guard
to operate in Mississippi and Alabama to protect these Greyhound
buses and to protect these American citizens who are traveling in interstate
commerce and who the federal judicial system has said have the right to do this
and that segregation laws are wrong. I should mention this, too, there’s
also been challenges to city parks, public places,
city parks that are segregated. And the federal court system has
also mandated that cities can’t have segregated parks anymore. Some cities, like Birmingham,
decided to shutdown all their parks, rather than allow white and black kids
to play together, has been there answer. There’s something also, Southern whites
start talking about massive resistance. They’re gonna resist this effort
to end their way of life. Let me bring you, there’s a long
good movie called Freedom Rides. Let me just open up the hyperlink, so you
can get a little bit more of a sense of what it was like because they
use a lot of original footage.>>Boarding that Greyhound bus to travel
through the heart of the Deep South, I felt good. I felt happy. I felt liberated. I was like a soldier in a nonviolent army. I was ready. [MUSIC]>>I’m sorry, our management does not
allow us to serve niggers in here.>>The Freedom Rides of 1961 were a simple
but daring plan to put blacks and whites on commercial buses. They would deliberately
violate the segregation laws.>>These people are going from town
to town and getting off the bus, Negro men and
white women to provoke acts of violence.>>The idea of going into Mississippi and
going into Alabama and challenging segregation so frontally
is something that alarmed not only those who opposed civil rights, but
those within the civil rights community.>>I don’t question their legal right
to travel, but I question their wisdom. Some people can get hurt.>>There was that feeling. I just like to punch some of them
damn agitators right in the face.>>There was a mob looking
like a thousand people. They had these iron pipes.>>They were screaming kill them niggers,
and they had babies in their arm.>>I asked God to be with me, to give me the strength I would need to
remain nonviolent and to forgive them.>>We’ll take hitting. We’ll take beating. We’re willing to accept death. But we’re going to keep
coming until we can rise from anywhere in the South,
any place else in the South. [MUSIC]>>They also got thrown into
jails in Mississippi and Alabama, and they would not post bail. They were protesters, and
this was not an easy thing to do. So these college students,
white and black, are deeply risking themselves to challenge the system,
and hats off to them for doing it. I think a lot of parents were like,
we agree that it should come to an end, but I don’t want my daughter or
son getting involved in this. But these brave people did. I need to also mention to you that because
churches, African-American churches are becoming the center for the black
community to come together to resist, now the KKK starts bombing
African-American churches. The most egregious one is in Birmingham,
Alabama on a Sunday morning. Or maybe I don’t know if it was a night or
what, but eight or nine young black girls were killed in their Sunday
school class because of a KKK bombing. And the Southern police force was
not investigating these things. Furthermore, Northern, College
students are coming to the South and trying to register African-Americans to
vote and tell them their right to vote. And a couple of Northern college
students get killed in Mississippi and thrown in a marsh, and
the local police won’t look into it. And finally, the federal government
through the FBI comes in. And it’s really gonna take an outside
force through the federal government, through the nation saying we want
the federal government to do this. This is all of the 1964 Civil Rights Act,
one of your IDs. It’s gonna take national
federal legislation outlawing segregation in public places
to force the stubborn Southern states to end their state,
county, and city laws. But I’ve also got an ID for
you named Bull Connor. Oops,
>>Three, Eugene Bull.>>Eugene Bull Connor. A couple things are gonna happen
in this amateur documentary film. Martin Luther King and
the SCLC are gonna decide to go to Birmingham even though
Birmingham’s dangerous to go to. Because as it was the most thoroughly
segregated city in the South, it felt like it was the capital
of segregation in Birmingham. They’re gonna do a confrontation there. They’re gonna do picketing. They’re gonna do boycotts. And they know they’re probably
gonna get a violent reaction there. But they think that the rest of
the country need to see what is going on in Birmingham and
to understand the anger, bigotry, and violence that is unleashed
against African-Americans. What happens in Birmingham
provokes Kennedy. And I think Kennedy’s kinda
hanging back a little bit and seeing what’s happening
in popular opinion. A popular opinion in America, people are
calling up their congressmen saying this is ridiculous that this is going on. And I think that Kennedy finally
feels that he can step out, and he’s gonna call for
legislation to end this thing. Also in 63, after Birmingham, that there’s
gonna be a large march on Washington. And that’s when famously
Martin Luther King is gonna give his, I Have a Dream speech. Where he says I have a dream
that someday I live in a country where I’m not judged by the color of my
skin, but by the conduct of my character. Kinda harkening back to what
Booker T Washington kinda promised the African American people
that someday you’ll be judged by the conduct of your character and
not by racism. But that was evidently wishful thinking. So I say this is a documentary film,
and it is in that it is a film. It’s got film. It’s presented as film, but I think it
must have started out as a research paper. And a really good research paper with
a good introductory paragraph, and then a good body to support all the things that
are said in the introductory paragraph, and then a great conclusion. But then what the guy did, I think,
is he just read the thing, narrated it, and then added images to it. He’s got one interview with somebody
who is a protester at Birmingham. But anyway I think it’s effective and
good scholarship, too. So we’ll go forward with this.>>You can never whip these birds If
you don’t keep you and them separate, I found out I’m blaming you. You’ve got to keep your white and
the black separate! [SOUND]
>>In May of 1963 one individual in Birmingham Alabama reinvigorated
the wilting Civil Rights Movement. Bull Connor, Birmingham’s Commissioner of Public Safety
ordered the use of fire hoses and police dogs to quell demonstrations
pushing for desegregation in Birmingham. In an ironic twist, however,
by defending segregation so fervently, Bull Connor actually called national
attention to the Civil Rights Movement and dramatized its goals. His violent actions brought the immediate
end to segregation in Birmingham. Solidified his legacy as a symbol
of bigotry, and most importantly, hastened the passage of major
civil rights legislation. [MUSIC] Starting in the 1950s, dramatic changes
began to sweep the entire nation. Following the landmark decision in Brown
versus Board of Education in 1954, and the success of
the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1956, America found itself amidst and
ever strengthening Civil Rights Movement. In 1962 however, the movement met its first significant
setback in Albany, Georgia. The Albany Movement was largely a failure. Because it lacked a clear cut focus and
fail to arouse an aggressive response from the police department,
the campaign stalled. In August of 1962, the leader of the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Dr Martin Luther King Jr
left the city of Albany. According to King,
the Albany Movement’s aims were so vague that we got nothing, and the people
were left depressed and in despair. Although King left Albany crestfallen, he quickly refocused his attention
on finding a way to regain momentum. King and other civil rights leaders saw
someone that would display to the world the grim reality of
segregation in the south. It didn’t take long to
find such an individual. [MUSIC] Born in 1897, Theophilus Eugene Connor
achieved local fame in Birmingham after dropping out of high school and becoming
a baseball radio announcer in 1921. Due to his booming voice, Connor earned
the nickname Boom, and eventually became, according to one publication,
one of Dixie’s most popular announcers. In 1934, Bull Connor launched his career
in politics by becoming a member of the Alabama House of Representatives. Connor eventually would become one of
the most infamous men in the South. By 1963, Connor had already
gained his reputation for defending segregation at all costs. Over the past two decades, he had
dominated Birmingham political scene. Serving as the Commissioner of
Public Safety kinda controlled both the police department and
the fire department. Connor frequently used his power to
enforce Birmingham stringent segregation ordinances, or as he referred to them,
our way of life. Bull Connor’s Birmingham had become
an international symbol of segregation and racism. The city was referred to as Bombingham for the numerous onsaw of bombings by
the Ku Klux Klan during Connor’s reign. In 1962, Connor ordered the closure
of over 60 of Birmingham’s parks rather than follow a court’s order
to desegregate public facilities. According to Dr. King, Birmingham was the most thoroughly
segregated city in the United States. After the failure of the Albany Movement,
local civil rights leaders implored Dr. King to make Birmingham the next
target of the Civil Rights Movement. Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth told King,
if you come to Birmingham, the movement can not only gain prestige,
it can really shake the country. With such a strong incentive, the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference began planning for the campaign in Birmingham. It would be called Project C for
confrontation.>>I have a feeling that if we can
get a breakthrough in Birmingham, and really breakdown the walls of segregation,
it will demonstrate to the whole South, at least the hardcore South,
that it can no longer resist integration.>>Since African-American comprise 40% of
the consumer population in Birmingham, the SCLC decided to target segregation
primarily on business section of the city through economic boycott and
prolonged demonstrations. The leaders of Project C also hoped
that it would serve as the template for future resistances in the southern cities. According to Shuttlesworth,
we wanted confrontation, non violent confrontation to see if
it would work on a massive scale, not just for Birmingham, for the nation. After small scale demonstrations in April, the leaders of Projects C decided
to use a revolutionary new tactic. The final phases the movement
would focus on mobilizing hundreds of Birmingham’s youth. On Thursday, May 2,
the first children began demonstrating. By the end of the day, both Connor and his police force had arrested 959
children ranging from ages 6 to 18. Over the next few days, Connor continued
defending segregation at all cost.>>Do you think you can keep Birmingham
in the present situation of segregation?>>I may not be able to do it but
I’ll die trying.>>Connor ordered his police and fire
departments to use dogs and hoses to crush these massive demonstrations to
counter King’s tactic of non violence. Connor pledged to fill the jails. By May 7th, Connor and his police department had already
jailed over 3,000 demonstrators. The situation in Birmingham worsened
as Connor proceeded with his relentless attack on the demonstrators. Local business leaders began to
change their minds about segregation. Because of the economically
crippling effect of the boycott and the state of race relations,
the Senior Citizens Committee, a group that represented the majority
of Birmingham’s businesses, agreed to desegregate bank counters and
hire African-American workers. Announced on May 10th, the Birmingham
Agreements struck an enormous blow for integration. Bull Connor’s extreme actions
had hugely backfired, but his violent actions would
eventually backfire even more.>>Bull Connor’s which
counter to behavior and positions, Allowed the press to be able to focus thoroughly on what was
happening within our movement experience.>>Over 200 reporters from local and
national media outlets captured Connor segregationist
tactics in pictures and video. The stark contrast of vicious dogs and
high powered hoses with young children dramatically
stirred the nation’s conscience. As Connor attacked the Birmingham
Agreement as capitulation by certain, We Need White People, President
John F Kennedy began preparing for a monumental address to the nation. Previously, Kennedy had taken a rather
lackluster stance on civil rights for African Americans. However, both Connors’s alarming actions
in Birmingham had alerted Kennedy along with millions of other Americans
of the dire situation in the south. On June 11th, 1963, Kennedy delivered
an address on civil rights to the nation.>>Now the time has come for
this nation to fulfill it’s promise. The events in Birmingham and elsewhere
have so increased the cries for equality that no city, or state, or legislative
body can prudently choose to ignore them. Which I shall ask the Congress
of the United States to act, to make a commitment it has not fully
made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or
law.>>Using the momentum from
the events in Birmingham, over 250,000 Americans participated in
the march on Washington in August of 1963, rallying behind a cry to pass the bill. A year later, President Lyndon-
>>All right, I’m gonna pause there, and I’m gonna resume the how. This is finally when the nation decides
they’re gonna act through legislation, but he didn’t mention this. Kennedy makes his speech calling for
legislation ending segregation in June. And in November,
he is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. And so it will not be
Kennedy who signs this bill. The bill will languish in Congress because the Southern block of Democratic
voters won’t vote for it. And it is gonna be hard,
so what happens is this. His Vice President, Lyndon Baines Johnson,
LBJ as he’s referred to as, I don’t know, JFK and LBJ back in the day when they
went by, mails and go by initials. And so we’re just taking the South,
one comes RGA and another comes the BO. But the funny thing was
they weren’t actual names. It was when they went into
the military in World War II [LAUGH]. And they were asked,
what does RJ stand for? And my wife’s grandfather
who was saying RJ was like, he’s like made up the name Robert Joseph. Another one with BO, everybody was
known by these initials, it was weird. JFK and LBJ,
LBJ Southern Democrat from Texas, had refused to sign
the Southern manifesto. And now his vice president and he now, he’s had a background in the Senate and
he now twists arms in Washington. He brings in Congressmen says,
if you do not vote for this bill, I will stop federal funding and
my next budget from going to your state. We’re gonna get this thing done. This time period is over. And so in the 1964 Civil Rights Act,
signed right here and you got, LBJ here,
you’ve got Martin Luther King there, it makes it illegal,
under federal law, for a public business to segregate or refuse service to certain segments
of the public based on race. So if you’re a theater,
open to the public and you say that blacks have to sit in
this section, that’s illegal and state laws requiring that at
businesses are illegal too. Hotels, restaurants, places of business, if you’re open to the public,
you can’t discriminate like this, nor can you have laws that mandate
that kind of discrimination. Do you have to go out and make a friend
of a person from another race next week? Does this law require that? It does not. But if you’ll recall this, remember all
those laws, like the ones in Oklahoma where said a white man and
the black man can’t go fishing together? There were laws saying you couldn’t
have friendship with these people, you couldn’t love
somebody from this other. You should pull with people. What this law says is that you cannot
force the American people not to have these liberties to make friendships
with other people that it’s up to them. And we’re not gonna have an authoritative
government that tells people, American citizens, what they can and
can’t do in that regard. The next year they pass
a Voters Rights Bill. Do I have that on there as well,
Voters Rights? And they have to now also deal
with the fact that the Southern states have disenfranchised
most African American voters. And so we now have federal legislation
looking over the elections. Now this is the high water mark
of the civil rights movement. It has achieved its aim,
it has ended segregation. But it has not solved race
relations in America. In fact, this is probably the best
moment for race relations in America. But now if you look at your essay topic,
I asked you to, notice it say it says, talk about how the civil rights
movement became radical and violent towards the end of the 60s?. And that’s where we get a turn for
the worse. And, I have a couple of ideas here for
you. And it is Malcolm X, the Black Panthers
and Watts, are three ideas together. Now Malcolm X, Black Panthers, and Watts are all events having to do with
African Americans, not in the South. But the background of it is this, although there’s no formal segregation
laws in northern, northwestern, and western states,
some of them did have segregation laws. While there weren’t formal
segregation laws in general, there were informal segregation laws. And there were all kinds of
restrictions on African Americans, and there was a pervasive racism in America. And you combine that with the difficulty
of cities, cities by the 1966, 67 are in real jeopardy because
of the Suburban Movement and all of the fluent people leaving the city. So if you’re living in downtown
Los Angeles or downtown Knoxville or Detroit or wherever, there’s not jobs, and there’s not economic opportunity and
things are getting run down and people won’t hire you, and there’s just
this systematic racism that exists. And if you’re a young
African-American male or female, you’re not gonna get a good job
because of this racism that exists. Malcom X is going to play upon that anger. And there’s a natural reason for
people to be angry and frustrated, right? But unlike Martin Luther King,
he’s not Probably the king didn’t want Southern blacks to be angry and
to lash out in violence. They want them to make a change but not to give in to this anger that
they might feel justified in feeling. But Malcolm X is going to
get a hold of that anger and fan the flames of the anger and
create a fire in these cities. This is my take on it. Background of him,
probably a product of the great migration. Remember how Southern blacks
moved to northern cities? I don’t know that for sure or when, but he grows up in Detroit,
Michigan in the 1950s. His father dies when he’s young. I think his father drove a bus for
the city. His mother is institutionalized
when he’s like in Junior High. So he basically grows up without parents. And he’s living in the inner city
area where there’s no jobs for young men like him, and
there’s poverty everywhere, and he gets involved with petty
crimes on the streets. He goes to jail for
a marijuana offense I think. And while he’s in jail, he meets a radical
Muslim cleric, a black Muslim cleric. This is something called the Nation of
Islam, which is, I don’t know if you know very much about it, it’s not very
prevalent today that I know of. But, Lots of parts of Africa are Muslim, and
obviously the Middle Eastern area. And they had been dominated by European
Society for a long time through colonies. And part of the effort to
throw off European control of those people got wrapped up into Islam. And so it looked like the white Christian
Europe was coming against Muslims. So that ends up making inroads
in America among inner-city African Americans to begin to turn
to Islam and away from Christianity as they look at America’s system of
exploitation of African Americans. And so converts to Islam. Now he calls himself Malcolm X because
he takes an X for his last name. He says, my, I don’t know what it was,
but it was a European name, right? It’s his last name. It could be Wilson. He knows that his
ancestors are not Wilson. His ancestors had an African
name that has been lost to him because they got taken as slaves, and
he does not want to bear the name of whatever family, but his ancestor,
he’s not gonna bear that name anymore. Now, along with him there’s also the Black
Panthers, and the Black Panthers also, mostly in cities
are African-American men and women who wanna take a more aggressive
approach, a more in your face approach. They’re tired of the violence that they, I mean remember watching those kids in
Greensboro get, stopping and popping? They’re mad and they argue that the only
way that we’re ever gonna be protected, we won’t get protected by the police. There’s acts of violence
against African-Americans, and they say we’re gonna have to
protect ourselves by exercising our Second Amendment right to bear arms. And look at these black men in leather
jackets and berets parading with 12 gauge shotguns out in the park and
kinda doing militia movements, scares the bejesus out of the same group
of whites who were offended by what was happening in the South, are now afraid
of what they’re seeing on television. So public opinion is
now starting to shift. National public opinion
responded with sentiment to ending segregation in the south. But as northern and western, with western cities begin
to have African-American community who come out in
a different way scares them. I’ll also say this Malcolm X also
goes after Martin Luther King. They say Martin Luther King
is paid by white people. He makes up all kinds of accusations
against Martin Luther King and he says Martin Luther King is
basically a modern day Uncle Tom. That his message of passive
resistance is weak. We have to stand up ourselves and
fight for ourselves. And furthermore, he starts paying
all white people the same. He casts every white person in
the category of having exploited Africa-Americans, which is
not a favorable thing to do. I think he’s exploiting the anger
of the people to promote himself to get recognition and
to become powerful. But it’s not good for
race relations in America. In fact, race relations taking amongst
that turn at this point in time. And there’s a lot of violence in schools,
gangs and such an violence randomly between whites
and blacks, and it’s just not a good time. Let me show you a little
bit of what he said.>>We still feel that we are right and that we stand within our
constitutional rights in the protest. We’re still advocating nonviolence,
a passive resistance, and still determined to
use the weapon of love. And I can say that there is no bitterness
on my part as a result of the decision, and I’m sure that I voice
the sentiment of the more than 40,000 Negro citizens of Montgomery. We still have the attitude of love. We still have the method
of passive resistance and we are still insisting emphatically
that violence is self-defeating. That he who lives by the sword
will perish by the sword.>>It has been suggested also that this
movement preaches the gospel of violence.>>No, the black people in this country
have been the victims of violence at the hands of the white man for
400 years and following the ignorant Negro preachers,
we have thought that it was god like to turn the other cheek
to the group that was brutalizing us. And today the honorable Elijah Muhammad
is showing black people in this country, that just as the white man and every other
person on this Earth has God given rights, natural rights, civil rights,
any kind of rights that you can think of, when it comes to defending himself,
black people should have, we should have the right
to defend ourselves also. And because of the honorable Elijah
Muhammad make black people brave enough. Milena to defend ourselves
no matter what the odds are. The white man runs around here with
a bullet with the doctrine that Mr. Mohammed is advocating violence when he’s actually telling negroes to defend
themselves against violent people.>>Reverend Martin Luther King
preaches a doctrine of nonviolent insistence upon
the rights of the American Negro. What is your attitude or your philosophy-
>>The white man pays Reverend Martin Luther King,
subsidizes Reverend Martin Luther King. So that Reverend Martin Luther King
can continue to teach the Negroes to be defenseless. That’s what you mean by nonviolent,
means defenseless. Be defenseless in the face
of one of the most cruel beasts that have ever taken
the people into captivity. That’s this American white man. And they have proved it throughout
the country by the police dogs and the police club. 100 years ago,
these people put on a white sheet and used a bloodhound against Negroes. Today, they’ve taken off the white sheet
and put on police uniforms, they’ve traded in the bloodhounds but police dogs and
they’re still doing the same thing. And just an Uncle Tom back
during slavery used to keep. The Negroes from resisting
the bloodhound or resisting the Ku Klux Klan by
teaching them to love their enemy. Or pray for
those who use them the spitefully today, Martin Luther King, Jr.,
the 20th century or modern Uncle Tom, or a religious Uncle Tom, who was doing
the same thing today to keep Negroes defenseless in the basement with their
uncle pounded on a plantation to keep those Negro defenseless in the in the base
of the attack of the clan in that day.>>Okay,
you see a different message, right? It is unfortunate,
he tapped into this anger. And things get a turn for the worse. He ends up being assassinated by
members within the Nation of Islam, where he has a falling out with. But what I wanna now go to is lots. And this is the beginning of a series of riots that take place in American
cities out of the frustration of impoverished African-Americans lack
of economic opportunity and a history, brutality by police officers in their
white police officers in their community. It happens in watts in the summer of 1968. Watts is a district within Los Angeles
that was primarily low income, primarily, non white,
different Asian Hispanic, African American, and
the police force of Los Angeles was a white police force that seemed
more like an occupation army. They cruise in the streets, and whenever
they apprehended an African-American or anyone in lots,
they used strong arm tactics. That is, that they were
pretty violent with them, and it was simply known that’s
how the police dealt with it. Well, what happens on this particular day
is a black motorist gets pulled over for a broken tail light. And when he is being conferred by
the policeman, he’s done with it. He starts verbally attacking the police
officer where the police tactics exist in their community. And that officer decides to call for
backup. So more white police officers show up to
deal with this unruly African-American male who is angry, and then they jump
in and they start pummeling him to an I guess with bats and such, and the people
sitting here watching this Ignite. And they come to the defense
of this man on the ground. And they start beating
up the police officers. Basically, a street brawl between police
officers and people from the community. The police officers now fleeing. And when that happens, do you remember
what Martin Luther King said, we reject violence thus we live
by the sword that self defeating. Unfortunately, a self
defeating thing now happens. African-Americans in the city where they, in the neighborhood where they live now
go on what can only be called a rampage. They start breaking into stores, and they steal things,
and they break out windows. And it’s just really self-defeating, and
it’s born out of frustration and poverty, I suppose, and
a feeling of a system that’s against them. They finally have to bring
in the National Guard. There’s fires going on in the city. And now listen, if you’re outside
of the city and if you were, many, I’m sure many people who were
black were looking at this and say, my gosh,
this is the worst thing that can happen. This is going in the wrong direction. But whites in America, they’re also now
gonna be subject to somebody who can, if Malcolm X played upon the fears and
anger of African-Americans. Now we’re gonna get political people who
play from the fear that now is growing among the white community. Because they look at the city like
that and see what’s going on. And now the Republican party
starts talking about it, we’re a party of law and order. And what that means is, when they take
on that mantle, we’re gonna be the ones who protect America from this
kind of inner city crime. And their solutions aren’t
gonna be better education or more investment in these communities. But their answer is more and
more police to to deal with this. And so, we got on a path that we’ve
never really departed from successfully. But we go from there and
it doesn’t go well. The 1970s are a time of great
racial difficulty in America. Okay. Let me look at here,
a little bit of this new deal coalition. Lots of strings are about to
become to the New Deal Coalition. The Democratic party has been
dominant in America since the 1930s. It’s about to lose its
dominance as the Republicans are going to reemerge as a dominant
party for the next 30 years. Between 1968 and 2016. That’s a long time, right? There’s only been I think
three democratic presidents. Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton and
Barack Obama, otherwise they’ve all been Republicans. We’re about to have a right wing move
in America, and it’s gonna be for a lot of things that happened in the 60s. But one of the things is
the race relations in America. The solid south that used to vote Democrat
are gonna be wooed by the Republican party over time. I’ll talk about these
other groups in a bit. But the Democratic party is gonna become,
and by the way the Democratic
party is kinda get torn apart. Because he’s got several
different elements to it. As you can see here, it’s got Midwestern
farmers who’re pretty conservative. Its got northern ethnic whites, who are
fairly conservative on some issues too. And what I’m gonna talk about next time is
about court rulings and all these things that happen that are gonna upset
a whole lot of traditional Americans. I guess I’ll leave it at that cuz
we got about 90 seconds left. I normally try to squeeze
every minute out but I don’t think I’m gonna be
able to do it at this moment. Any questions for
you guys about all this history? Kind of looking at the way the world
has emerged, the world that we live in. That’s what’s happening in the last
couple of weeks of this class. That’s where we are. Why is the world the way it is? [LAUGH]

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