KGB, torture and Soviet terror: why 🇱🇻Latvia worries about today’s Russia (NATO Review)

KGB, torture and Soviet terror: why 🇱🇻Latvia worries about today’s Russia (NATO Review)

KGB, torture and Soviet terror:
why Latvia worries about Russia Latvia was
an independent and neutral country when it was invaded
by Soviet troops in 1940. For the next fifty years, Latvia lived
under an oppressive Soviet regime, directed from Moscow. Since Latvia
restored its independence in 1990, these physical relics are the main
reminders of the Soviet occupation. But the mental reminders of
the Soviet years have been revived by Russia’s interference in security,
especially in Georgia and Ukraine. NATO Review went to find out what
happened to Latvians in those years and how it affects
their view of Russia today. We thought that we had seen
the worst in Georgia. It makes me very sad. This is the first time
since the restoration of independence where we feel that threat.
– That’s a new situation. I would never expect
a couple of years ago, that this would be possible
in any part of Europe. For many Latvians,
Russia’s recent aggressive actions towards its neighbours
bring back memories of when the Soviet Union
invaded Latvia not once, but twice
during the Second World War. People in 1939 were
convinced that they were safe. It’s very sad
when you read people’s memoires. That last summer
of Latvian independence in 1940, before the Russian troops marched in, they truly were living happy lives
and saying: We’re absolutely safe. Nothing can touch us. When the Soviets arrived,
one of the first things they did was start to deport any Latvians
who they felt were a threat. On the night
of the 14th of June 1941, 15,000 Latvians
were woken in the night and forced to come
to the railway station and they were pushed
into wagons such as these. Of these 15,000,
2,400 were children. As they left,
they tried to push out farewell notes and they were scattered
on the tracks, some of them never
reaching the families concerned. Of those 15,000 who were
transported here, over half would die. Those who wanted to avoid
deportation or worse, escaped. Ojars Eriks Kalnins family
was one of those who escaped. Today he is Chairman
of Latvia’s Foreign Affairs Committee. My parents lived through the last war. I ended up growing up in the US,
but returned, and I never imagined
on returning to Latvia that I would face the same thing
that they lived through. I hope that history
doesn’t repeat itself. The complacency
that some would exhibit by saying: Oh, that’s the Eastern neighbourhood. It’s their immediate neighbours
that are a danger, it doesn’t concern us,
we are far away. Please, do not fall into that illusion. It’s the sort of illusion that led
to the First and Second World Wars and many unpleasant things
that happened in the world. One of those unpleasant things was
the treatment of Latvians by the KGB. And this is the KGB building in Riga
where some of the worst treatment from torture to murder took place. Let me give you
an idea of what it would be like to be a prisoner
in this KGB cell in Riga. The cell itself is
about 3 meters by 5 meters. It has four wooden beds here and the lights were on permanently,
so it would be very difficult to sleep. In fact, the KGB agent looked
through the spy hole and saw that a prisoner was asleep,
he would come in and wake him up. There was a system
of heating downstairs which meant
that the temperature within this cell would be almost unbearable,
around 40 degrees. But perhaps one of the worst things
about this, is that this cell, designed to hold four prisoners,
at times held up to 42 of them. And for those prisoners
that the KGB really wanted to break, this was the method:
a solitary confinement cell of less than 1 meter by 1 meter.
No opportunity to lie down. Prisoners could be in here
for three days. And, to make matters even worse,
during that time, repetitive noises
designed to break the mind, were pumped through
through the ceiling. And this is
the exercise yard of the KGB building where one day in every three,
if prisoners were lucky, they would be allowed
to have a walk and exercise here. However, it would be just
for ten minutes, and even then, whilst they walked, they would be
viewed by a KGB officer above. The reason for this ten minutes, was
not to give the prisoners some relief. The reason was to show them
the freedom that they were missing. And finally, this is the execution
room where prisoners were shot. When the Nazis came to Riga
in 1941 and discovered this building, there were 240 bullet casings
on the floor alone. The room has been designed
in such a way to be very easy to execute and clean up afterwards,
as there’s a slope down so the blood could be
washed away immediately after. And it was in this room that
many of the Latvian KGB prisoners the journey ended for them. Sandra Kalniete’s family were less
lucky than those who could escape. Her family were deported
to Siberia where she was born. She didn’t actually
see Latvia until she was aged 7. As an adult
she started challenging the system and one of her most
memorable contributions was organizing the human chain
across the Baltic States in 1989, which became known
as the Baltic Way. The first one was to attract
the attention of the West and to remind to the world society
that for the Baltic States the Second World War has not ended
and that we still are occupied. But another goal of course
was to show to Moscow that this is our very strong will. I think it touched many people
and this was something, which during the first ten years
after independence was vastly remembered. I for instance,
I made a trip to Morocco and I was buying
something in the local souk and I was asked where I am from.
I said: Baltic Sea, Latvia. Yeah, he answered, he knows.
It’s where people were holding hands. Independence from the Soviet Union
was followed by a quest to join NATO. And the effects of joining
the alliance were profound. I remember in front of Riga castle
we had a ceremony raising the flag and there were
elderly people in the audience openly crying and saying:
I have been exiled to Siberia. I have seen how quickly
a country can lose its independence when it thought itself
safe from attack because of its neutrality
and prosperity and so on. I’m so relieved now
that I feel we have a chance, my grandson,
whom he held in his arms, that he would not have to go through
what I went through in my life. I have a grandson, you know. Once he came back
from school and said: Is it true there will be war?
You see, even children are afraid. Keeping them informed
about what happened to their parents and grandparents
is one of Latvia’s biggest defences. I think our schools
should remind them of the dangers. But also, they should look
at what’s happening in the world. None of us should feel
complacent or entirely safe, just because we wish to be. So how do young Latvians
see their history? Last year, we had
an exam about Latvian history, about all the Second World War.
So, I think I actually kind of know. I can’t explain, but I know
quite much about these times from my granny,
and so it’s worrying me. What do they think
of what’s happening today? I think everything will be OK. I’m kind
of optimistic about that. I hope so. But things are not black and white. Latvia has
a Russian-speaking minority, which ranges from a quarter
to a third of the population. And protecting such a minority
was one of the excuses used by Russia
to invade both Ukraine and Georgia. The difference of opinions
can perhaps be best illustrated by the feelings
towards this monument behind me. It was built in 1985,
officially to commemorate the victims who died in bringing victory
over Nazi Germany in 1945. However, some Latvians see this
as a symbol of the old Soviet regime and there have been more than
one attempts to bomb the monument. On the other hand,
Russian-speaking Latvians commemorate 9th of May
here in their thousands and have vowed
to protect the monument. And the Russian-speaking
community can feel strongly that Russia has been victimized.
This feeling can even be found amongst the younger population. People in the West,
so, like America and West Europe, they have made this
like revolution in Ukraine and so, I don’t think
that Russia made something wrong. I think they’ve made everything right. But regardless of the theories, the fact is that 2014
is Latvia’s tenth year in NATO. So, what would be happening now
if the country hadn’t joined NATO? I don’t think I want to imagine that. I’m glad that
that’s not a reality anymore. We might have seen little green men
or tanks rolling across our borders. Do you feel that NATO means much
more in this part of the alliance? I think it means everything.
It means our security and it has reasserted itself
in our minds after ten years. It has proven why we needed to join. You personally, I’ve talked
to others who were affected by what happened
during the war and after the war, what does this mean to you to see
this kind of thing happening again? Well, it makes me very sad. We really did think
it was behind us, you see. And it makes me very sad.

34 Comments on "KGB, torture and Soviet terror: why 🇱🇻Latvia worries about today’s Russia (NATO Review)"

  1. New edition of NATO Review Magazine now available, focusing on the reasons the Baltics still fear #Russia .
    In this moving video, #NATOReview looks inside the KGB prison where Latvians were locked up, tortured or killed. Hear how today's leading Latvians were affected by Soviet occupation, as NATO Review asks if they see echoes in today's Russian aggression.


  2. Very good video.
    I am Estonian. Every single Estonian has relatives and friends who were deported and killed and relatives and friends who escaped to the "west". Psychologically it's a heavy burden because it's not normal.
    I think WW2 will be over for the Baltic countries when  the problem of Soviet colonists gets solved. Since it hasn't been solved in a satisfactory way, this war is sort of over but not over. There are also issues regarding pre-WW2 borders. 
    After an occupation colonists should always leave. If later on there are individuals of country A who want to live in country B and respect the laws and language of country B then why not. Colonists staying on is legitimising occupation and violence.


  3. With all due respect to the history, I worry at least as much about today's USA and about what my country, Latvia, is becoming as its military ally via NATO…


  4. Horrible to remember, but never to forget!  Latvians, Estonians had the same fate … and now same fears … 


  5. Horrible! However, it would be more than interesting to see "today's" happenings in Gitmo, Mid East and other worldwide hidden interrogation places. Doubt that evolution brought any progress in respect of human rights, mild to say. 


  6. Traduction en français de la vidéo
    KGB, torture et terreur soviétique : voilà pourquoi la Lettonie craint la Russie.

    Dans cette vidéo, Madame Vaira Vike Freiberga, ex-Présidente de la Lettonie entre 1999 et 2007 et actuelle Présidente du Club de Madrid est interviewée. Elle a rencontré Vladimir Poutine à plusieurs reprises au cours de ses deux mandats, et déclarait en débt d'année 2014 que l’ancien agent du KGB qu’est Poutine et la Russie "pousseront aussi loin que possible, et tant qu’ils n’auront pas de résistance ils pousseront encore plus loin."

    Depuis, d'autres faits sont apparus en Ukraine et lui donnent raison. Les troupes russes font régulièrement des incursions en augmentation sur les territoires baltes maritimes ou aériens.  Ce qui fait dire au journaliste américain Paul Roderick Gregory dans un article de Forbes paru ce 23/9/2014 : "Le président russe Vladimir Poutine est plus dangereux que la menace de la faction djihadiste "Etat islamique", et peut détruire l’OTAN".

    Traduction de la vidéo :

    "La Lettonie était un pays indépendant et neutre quand elle a été envahie par les troupes soviétiques en 1940.
    Durant les cinquante années suivantes, la Lettonie a subi un régime soviétique oppressif, dirigé depuis Moscou."

    "Depuis que la Lettonie a rétabli son indépendance en 1991, ces reliques physiques sont les principaux rappels de l'occupation soviétique.
    Mais les souvenirs de l'époque soviétique sont relancées en matière de sécurité, par l'intervention de la Russie , notamment en Georgie et en Ukraine."

    "Pour beaucoup de Lettons, les actions agressives récentes de la Russie envers ses voisins ramenent les souvenirs
    quand l'Union soviétique a envahi la Lettonie non pas une fois, mais deux fois au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale."

    "En 1939 les personnes étaient convaincues qu'elles étaient en sécurité.
    C'est très triste quand vous lisez les mémoires des gens.
    Lors du dernier été de l'indépendance lettone en 1940, avant que les troupes russes ne défilent, ils vraiment vivaient une vie heureuse en se disant : Nous sommes absolument sûrs, que rien ne peut nous toucher."

    "Lorsque les Soviétiques sont arrivés, l'une des premières choses qu'ils ont fait c'est commencer à expulser des Lettons qui, selon eux, étaient une menace.
    Dans la nuit du 14 Juin 1941, ce sont 15.000 Lettons qui ont été réveillés dans la nuit et forcé de venir à la gare. Ils ont été poussés dans des wagons de ce type."

    "Parmi ces 15.000 personnes expulsées 2.400 étaient des enfants.
    En partant, ils ont essayé de lancer des notes d'adieu qui se sont dispersées sur les pistes, certaines d'entre elles sans jamais atteindre les familles concernées."

    "Parmi les 15.000 enfants qui ont été transportés plus de la moitié sont morts.
    Ceux qui voulaient éviter la déportation ou pire, échappé.
    Ojars Eriks Kalnins a été l'un de ceux qui ont échappé.
    Aujourd'hui, il est président du Comité des affaires étrangères de la Lettonie."

    "Mes parents ont vécu la dernière guerre.
    J'ai fini par grandir aux États-Unis, puis je suis retournée (en Lettonie),
    et je n'aurais jamais imaginé en retournant en Lettonie que je ferais face à la même chose qu'ils ont vécu.
    J'espère que l'histoire ne se répète pas."

    "La complaisance que certains voudraient présenter en disant : Oh, c'est à l'Est. C'est leurs voisins immédiats qui sont un danger, cela ne nous concerne pas, nous sommes loin !"

    "S'il vous plaît, ne tombez pas dans cette illusion. C'est le genre d'illusion qui a conduit à la première et la seconde guerre mondiale et beaucoup de choses désagréables qui se sont produites dans le monde."

    "Une de ces choses désagréables fut le traitement des Lettons par le KGB.
    Et c'est le dans ce bâtiment du KGB à Riga où certains des pires traitements de torture et d'assassinats ont eu lieu."

    "Permettez-moi de vous donner une idée de ce que ce serait d'être un prisonnier dans une cellule du KGB à Riga."

    "La cellule elle-même mesure environ 3 mètres par 5 mètres.
    Et dispose de quatre lits en bois ici
    Les lumières restent allumées en permanence, de sorte qu'il est très difficile de dormir."

    "En fait, l'agent du KGB regarde à travers le judas et s'il voit que le prisonnier est endormi, il vient le réveiller.
    Il y avait un système de chauffage par le bas, ce qui signifie que la température à l'intérieur de cette cellule était presque insupportable, autour de 40 degrés."

    "Mais peut-être que l'une des pires choses à ce sujet, c'est que cette cellule, est conçue pour accueillir quatre prisonniers, et parfois y sont détenues jusqu'à 42 personnes."

    "Et pour les prisonniers que le KGB voulait vraiment rompre, la méthode c'était : une cellule d'isolement de moins de 1 mètre sur 1 mètre. Sans possibilité de se coucher."

    "Les prisonniers pouvaient être ici pendant trois jours.
    Et, pendant ce temps, pour rendre les choses encore pires, des bruits répétitifs visant à briser l'esprit, sont frappés à travers le plafond."

    "Et là, c'est la cour d'exercice du bâtiment du KGB où un jour sur trois, si les prisonniers avaient de la chance,  ils étaient autorisés à se promener et faire de l'exercice. Cependant, c'était seulement  dix minutes, et même moins. Tandis qu'ils marchaient, ils étaient observés par un officier du KGB ci-dessus.
    Pourquoi seulement dix minutes, c'était pour ne pas permettre aux prisonniers un certain soulagement.
    La raison était de leur montrer la liberté qui leur manquait."

    "Et enfin, ici c'est la salle d'exécution où les prisonniers ont été abattus."
    Quand les nazis sont venus à Riga en 1941 et ont découvert ce bâtiment, il n'y avait que 240 douilles de balles sur le sol seulement.
    La salle a été conçue de manière à être très facile à signer et à nettoyer après, avec une pente descendante de sorte que le sang pouvait être lavé immédiatement après.
    Et c'est dans cette salle que pour la plupart des prisonniers lettons du KGB le voyage s'est terminé pour eux."

    "La famille de Sandra Kalniete a eu moins de chance que ceux qui se sont échappés.
    Sa famille a été déportée en Sibérie où elle est née.
    Elle n'a pas vu la Lettonie jusqu'à ce qu'elle soit âgée de 7 ans.
    En tant qu'adulte, elle a commencé à contester le système et une de ses contributions les plus mémorables a été l'organisation de la chaîne humaine à travers les Etats baltes le 23 aout 1989, qui est connue sous le nom de La Voie Balte."

    "En premier il fallait attirer l'attention de l'Occident et rappeler à la société mondiale que pour les États baltes la Seconde Guerre mondiale n'etait pas terminée et que les états baltes étaient toujours occupés."

    "Mais un autre objectif en cours était de montrer à Moscou notre très forte volonté.
    Je pense que La Voie Balte a touché beaucoup de gens et c'était quelque chose, qui, pendant les dix premières années après l'indépendance a été largement rappelée."

    "Par exemple, j'ai fait un voyage au Maroc et j'ai acheté quelque chose dans le souk. On m'a demandé d'où je viens. J'ai dit: la mer Baltique, la Lettonie.
    Oui, répondit-il, il sait. C'est là que les gens se tenaient la main."

    "L'indépendance de l'Union soviétique a été suivie par une quête pour rejoindre l'OTAN.
    Et les effets de l'adhésion à l'alliance étaient profonds.
    Je me souviens en face du château de Riga, nous avons eu une cérémonie de lever du drapeau et il y avait des personnes âgées dans le public qui ouvertement pleuraient et ont dit : j'ai été exilé en Sibérie."

    "J'ai vu la rapidité avec laquelle un pays peut perdre son indépendance quand il se croit à l'abri de l'attaque en raison de sa neutralité et de la prospérité et ainsi de suite."

    "Je suis tellement soulagée maintenant que je pense que nous avons une chance, mon petit-fils,  tenu dans les bras, n'aura pas à passer par ce que j'ai vécu dans ma vie."

    "J'ai un petit-fils, vous le savez. Une fois qu'il revenait de l'école et dit: Est-il vrai, il y aura la guerre?
    Vous voyez, même les enfants ont peur."
    Les tenir informés de ce qui s'est passé à leurs parents et grands-parents est une des plus grandes défenses de la Lettonie. Je pense que nos écoles doivent leur rappeler les dangers. Mais aussi, ils doivent regarder ce qui se passe dans le monde."

    "Aucun d'entre nous ne doit se sentir complaisant ou entièrement à l'abri, juste parce que nous voulons l'être."

    Alors, comment les jeunes Lettons voient leur histoire?
    "L'année dernière, nous avons eu un examen sur l'histoire lettone, sur toute la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Donc, je pense que je sais en fait assez.
    Je ne peux pas l'expliquer, mais je sais très bien de ces moments de ma grand-mère, et cela m'inquiète."

    Que pensent-ils de ce qui se passe aujourd'hui?
    "Je pense que tout sera OK. Je suis un peu optimiste à ce sujet. J'espère bien.
    Mais les choses ne sont pas noir et blanc.
    La Lettonie a une minorité russophone, qui varie d'un quart à un tiers de la population."

    "Et la protection de ces minorités était une des excuses utilisée par la Russie pour  envahir l'Ukraine et la Géorgie.
    La différence d'opinions peut-être mieux illustrée par les sentiments envers ce monument derrière moi.
    Il a été construit en 1985, officiellement pour commémorer les victimes décédées en apportant la victoire sur l'Allemagne nazie en 1945.
    Cependant, certains Lettons y voient un symbole de l'ancien régime soviétique et il y a eu plus d'une tentation de bombarder le monument.
    D'autre part, les Lettons russophones commémorer le 9 mai ici par milliers et ont juré de protéger le monument.
    Et la communauté russophone peut se sentir fortement que la Russie a été victime. Ce sentiment peut même être trouvé parmi la population plus jeune."

    "Les gens de l'Ouest, si, comme l'Amérique et l'Europe de l'Ouest, ils ont fait cette révolution comme en Ukraine et ainsi, Je ne pense pas que la Russie a fait quelque
    Je pense qu'ils ont fait tout bien."

    "Mais quelles que soient les théories, le fait est que 2014 est la dixième année de la Lettonie à l'OTAN."

    Donc, ce qui se passerait maintenant si le pays n'avait pas adhéré à l'OTAN?

    "Je ne pense pas que je veux l'imaginer.
    Je suis heureux que ce n'est pas une réalité plus.
    Nous aurions vu les petits hommes ou des réservoirs verdoyantes delà de nos frontières."

    Pensez-vous que l'OTAN signifie beaucoup plus dans cette partie de l'alliance?
    "Je pense qu'il veut tout dire. Cela signifie que notre sécurité et il a lui-même réaffirmé dans nos esprits après dix ans.
    Il a prouvé pourquoi nous devions rejoindre.
    Vous personnellement, j'ai parlé à d'autres personnes qui ont été touchées par ce qui s'est passé pendant la guerre et après la guerre, qu'est-ce que cela signifie pour vous de voir ce genre de chose ne se reproduise?"

    "Eh bien, ça me rend très triste."
    Nous pensions vraiment que c'était derrière nous, vous voyez.
    Et ça me rend très triste."

    Traduction de l'nterview de Madame la Présidente Vaira Vike Freiberga par

    ( Le 25 mars 1949 en Lettonie ils furent 42125 personnes victimes du génocide soviétique. C’est la plus grande déportation de personnes de l’histoire des États Baltes. Au total dans les trois pays Baltes se furent 94779 victimes déportées, dont près de la moitié venant de Lettonie. )

    ( Témoignage de Guntars Abols et Aina Nagobads Abols exilés : )


  7. We must remember the relation beetwen US and Russia in the Bush Administration…
    It was strong and with differents treaties like SALT or others, and the Council NATO-Russia was with vitality and live, but now is freeze and die. We must to work beetwen Vancouver to Vladivostock against terrorism-yihadism. 


  8. I am very sad too because aggressor starts operating again…with all the lies in tv and real life…..The sadest part is that in the big organization they still lie every time and they are still there…..The big question is. WHY?


  9. It is normal that we hate each other, it's everywhere (other parts of the globe), it's the human nature. But politicians don't hate, they need power, money and us – to pursue those two things.


  10. Honestly, I don't think the NATO will be able to stop Putin if he decides to invade the Baltic countries. And that's what worries me. I don't feel any safer by being part of the it.


  11. I absolutely feel the uneasiness of many latvians today. Putin is a dangerous man and the sooner he's gone the better.


  12. The Latvians are happy that their country is part of NATO. Latvia is not a terrorist country because it is part of NATO, the only terrorist countries that are in that region are Belarus, Serbia, and the biggest one, Russia.


  13. Most of the comments I've read under this video only exacerbate and send things on fire by adding more gasoline. Speaking three languages and reading the major news portals on any of the sides, I've decided not to take any sides in this and I would veto any side should there be anything related with military operations.

    As long as resources are scarce, clash of nations, regions or political/economical clubs is inevitable. The conflicting interests exist not only among nations, they go as far as reaching the micro level, i.e. between us humans within our own nation. What not to say, even two people sometimes cannot get along.

    I'm positive about future, but it seems world wars are somehow inevitable because of this resource paradigm or that we exist on the brink of war sometimes even when trying to seek a win-win scenario between nations. Seems as though that, with development big nations turn out to become imperialistic world gendarme, whether Ancient Rome, Russia, U.S. or possibly-next-down-the-line China, and begin their expansion beyond their own territories to control and dominate others.I'm not a global strategist, but it is as though that Europe builds one bloc, probably paired with the U.S., Arabic world builds another, China and Russia join their positions… I'm not saying countries collaborate with each other in order to have beneficial exchanges, but I'm asking myself, "Is there a tactic/hidden agenda behind all of the charade played by news channels?"

    I'm wondering of the time, perhaps a couple of thousand years later, when and if humanity reaches singularity, a human being on some interstellar journey would say to other aliens something like, "I'm from planet Earth" and that there won't be anything like, "I am from Canada" or "I'm from Japan" or any other country.But such a union wouldn't begin without a bloodshed. Throughout history, China was divided before it reached unity and became a single country, so were the north and the south in the U.S., feudals in Germany… I guess it all goes through a millstone grind.

    We aren't that much different from each other, most countries have democracies, we eat, sleep, make kids and speak different languages, which in turn, is merely a form of code. In that respect, I beg, not ask, learn the "code", dive deep and do not sink your brains in opinions alone.


  14. NATO, you need a local language news service to present Western viewpoints in every country in Europe.


  15. We have your back, brothers. If the Russians come prowling around your land again we'll be sure to kick their asses back to their frozen hell!


  16. As a Latvian American, whose family were on the death lists of the KGB to be killed and who fled for their lives to the West. I don't know how to put this.. Without NATO. Lithuanians, Estonians and Latvians Would be exterminated off the face of the Globe. By the Russians even today! My people. The Balts wouldn't have a chance to exist! NATO means Life to the Baltic People! Recent in the past month Donald Trump stated in essence under his White House. He would remove NATO membership from the Baltic States. Up until recently he had my vote. But no longer. For he has NO Understanding of foreign policy nor history!


  17. Well, im from Latvia. And im really really proud that we are in NATO. Yeah, ofcourse we dont have such an army like Uk, Germany or US, but we are woriking on it. Long live NATO.


  18. A bit clumsily dramatized, but the bloody-handed cruelty of the soviet union still needs to be remembered.


  19. Seems like more innocent citizens on all sides have suffered n murdered during ww1/2..everyone has a story very devastating n real.
    I just hope history does not repeat itself again.todays generations dont want wars but united future.


  20. Unfortunately the history is sometimes written by victors. That is the reason why bolshevik animals were never punished for their horrible crimes.


  21. I'm from Italy.
    I can't understand what a other nation occupation mean but I like to know different reality in this world.
    Thanks for this video!


  22. Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians, stay united against the Russian aggression. Putin's Russia must be downed!


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