Music To Talk About SOCIALISM To (music to talk about politics to)

Music To Talk About SOCIALISM To (music to talk about politics to)


this article is about the economic system
and political philosophy. For other uses, see Socialism (disambiguation).
Part of a series on Socialism
Red flag waving.svg Socialism is a social and economic system
characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management
of the economy,[1][2] as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment
of such a system.[3][4] “Social ownership” may refer to cooperative enterprises, common
ownership, state ownership, citizen ownership of equity, or any combination of these.[5]
There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating
all of them.[6] They differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, the degree
to which they rely on markets or planning, how management is to be organised within productive
institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism.[7] A socialist economy is based on the principle
of production for use, to directly satisfy economic demand and human needs, and objects
are valued by their use-value, as opposed to the principle of production for profit
and accumulation of capital.[8] In the traditional conception of a socialist economy, coordination,
accounting and valuation are performed in kind (using physical quantities), by a common
physical magnitude, or by a direct measure of labour-time in place of financial calculation.[9][10]
For distributing output, two alternative principles have been proposed: to each according to his
contribution and from each according to his ability, to each according to his need. The
advisability, feasibility and exact way of allocating and valuing resources are the subjects
of the socialist calculation debate. The socialist political movement includes
a diverse array of political philosophies. Core dichotomies include reformism versus
revolutionary socialism, and state socialism versus libertarian socialism. State socialism
encompasses calls for the nationalisation of monopolized or oligopolized corporations
or other institutions, universal goal setting and planning, and legal public ownership of
the means of production as a strategy for implementing socialism; libertarian socialism
encompasses calls for decentralised means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism,
citizens’ assemblies, trade unions, and workers’ councils[11] coming from a general anti-authoritarian
stance.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] While all tendencies of socialism consider themselves
democratic, the term “democratic socialism” is often used to highlight its advocates’
high value for democratic processes and political systems and usually to draw contrast to other
socialist tendencies they may perceive to be undemocratic.[19] Some socialists have
adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism and liberalism.[20] Modern socialism originated from an 18th-century
intellectual and working-class political movement that criticised the effects of industrialisation
and private property on society. The revival of republicanism in the American Revolution
of 1776 and the revival of egalitarianism in the French Revolution of 1789 converged
into the rise of socialism as a distinct political movement by the turn of the century. Initially,
“socialism” referred to general concern for the social problems of capitalism regardless
of the solutions to those problems. However, by the late 19th century, after waves of revolutionary
movements, “socialism” had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for
a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership.[21] During this time,
German philosopher Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels published works criticising
the utopian aspects of contemporary socialist trends, and applied a materialist understanding
of socialism as a phase of development which will come about through social revolution
instigated by escalating and conflicting class relationships within capitalism.[22] Within
this surge of opposition to capitalism appeared other more or less complementary tendencies
such as anarchism, communism, and social-democracy and later, the confluence of socialism with
anti-imperialist and anti-racist struggles around the world. Socialism became the most
influential worldwide movement and political-economic world view of the 20th century[23] Some anarchist,
socialist and Marxist tendencies argue that the Soviet Union did not establish socialism,
but rather established state capitalism.[24][25][26] Today, socialist parties and ideas remain
a political force with varying degrees of power and influence in all continents, leading
national governments in many countries.

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