Not all Fascists Are Nazis – Civil War in Austria | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1934 Part 2 of 4

Not all Fascists Are Nazis – Civil War in Austria | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1934 Part 2 of 4


So what do you do when you have to choose
between Fascism and Naziism? Hard choice? Well, if only one of them comes with independence
you might take that one – this is what conservative politician Engelbert Dolfuss does when he
decides to become the Fascist Dictator of Austria in 1934. Welcome to Between-2-Wars a chronological
summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism,
and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World
War. I’m Indy Neidell. In 1934, Austria is a reduced power, struggling
to stay independent from Germany. The country faces persistent financial challenges after
being rocked by the German banking crisis, which actually started in Austria with the
collapse of Austria’s biggest bank, Kreditsanstalt in 1931. It is also plagued by political violence
from armed militias of the Communists, Social Democrats, Conservatives, Fascists, and Nazis.
And caught in a vice between the Italian Fascists and the German Nazis, domestic policy is increasingly
divisive in this landlocked mountainous, little country that was until just a few months ago
a nascent democracy. But this isn’t how it’s always been. In fact, for several centuries, Austria’s
power was the envy of Central Europe. It was the dominant state of the Holy Roman Empire
and then one of the five great European powers in the nineteenth century. Although ruled
by a German-speaking elite centered around the Habsburg dynasty, it was a multilingual
and multicultural empire. Its millions of subjects ranged from Germans to Croats to
Italians to Poles to Czechs and many, many more. But as the rising tide of national feeling
began to spread across Europe, this diversity would prove its downfall. Calls for independence
grow louder and louder, and Austria even loses significant chunks of territory in the second
half of the nineteenth century. Mounting pressure from another German-speaking Great power,
Prussia, also threatened the Empire. When the idea of a unified pan-Germanic nation
starts to gain popularity after the 1848 Revolutions, the struggle, led by Prussia, towards this
goal risks marginalizing Vienna’s power. The pan-German movement had always been influential
in the Austrian Empire but not powerful enough to counter the Austro-centric view of the
leadership. Eventually, the German question leads to war between Austria and the Prussian
led German states in 1866. The Prussian side comes out better, and to
counter its own decline, Austria is forced to agree to the elevation of the Kingdom of
Hungary as an equal partner. The Dual Kingdom of Austria and Hungary or the Austro-Hungarian
Empire is formed. The two ‘sides’ mostly run things independently of each other, apart
from foreign policy and military matters which come under joint oversight. The Habsburgs
also remain as the ruling imperial dynasty. But the Union does little to save Austria.
In the end, the separatist emotions plaguing the Empire, combined with pressure from neighboring
countries, contribute to pushing Austro-Hungary and the rest of the world into the conflict
that will be the Habsburgs’ downfall: The Great War. After the war, the Treaties of Saint Germain
and Trianon split the Dual -Kingdoms, and the Empire is dismantled. Austria loses most of its non-German speaking
territories. But even some German-speaking regions are snatched away. This is, to some
degree, an effect of complicated ethnic borderlands, making it impossible to draw a border that
will satisfy all national groups. For example, the “Sudetenland” goes to Czechoslovakia,
but it is not, and never has been a geopolitical reality. Instead, it’s a loosely defined
region populated by ethnic Germans which straddles the provinces of Moravia and Bohemia. In fact,
the term “Sudetenland” only enters common usage in the 1920s, arising from a need to
categorize what is now under threat. The once-mighty Empire is now suddenly a landlocked
republic, stripped of much of its industry. This immediately raises questions over its
viability, and nationalist affinity with a similarly neutered Germany leads to hopes
of unification. The Allies have already seen this coming, forbidding such a union in the
treaties of Versailles and Saint Germain. Nevertheless, for many Austrians, unification
still seems the only means of survival. But this isn’t the only cause of friction
in the country. Austrian politics is dominated by two parties whose political rhetoric could
not be more opposed. On one side is the Social Democrats. Though reformist and moderate in
practice, the party regularly espouse Marxist ideals of class war in speeches and newspapers.
Such rhetoric strikes fear into the hearts of many devout Catholics and landowners, driving
them towards the conservative Christian Social Party. This is likely what makes the Christian
Socials the strongest party in the country. In the 1920’s they produce the majority
of federal Chancellors. But there is no end to the people happy to
challenge their power. One such person is Walter Pfrimer, leader of a regional chapter
of the Heimwehr – a paramilitary organization similar to Germany’s Freikorps. Now, like
many Heimwehr leaders, Pfrimer is disdainful of parliamentary democracy. Unlike many Heimwehr
leaders, Pfrimer is also hostile to the Christian Social Party, whose Austrian nationalism is
anathema to his pan-German dreams. No doubt hoping to replicate Mussolini’s
seizure of power, on 13 September 1931, Pfrimer stages a coup, marching his Styria Heimwher
unit on Vienna. But the whole affair is pretty poorly organized and the putsch is suppressed
quickly by authorities in just one day, earning Pfrimer the title of “half-day dictator.”
The Christian Socials have lived to see another day. But on 20 May 1932, they appoint a new chancellor
who will change the fortunes of the Austrian Republic forever. Engelbert Dollfuss is born in Texing in 1892
as the illegitimate son of a peasant couple. Despite his humble beginnings, he excels in
school, and his enthusiasm as an altar boy leads to his parish priest securing a scholarship
for him to study at a religious school. In 1913, he travels to the University of Vienna
to study for the priesthood, but ends up dropping out and studied law instead. His studies are
interrupted by the Great War, which he insists on fighting despite technically being too
short to do so. You see, Dollfuss is only 150 cm tall, which is 5 cm below the minimum
height requirement. That’s 4’9” in feet and inches. Nevertheless, he fights valiantly.
His wartime experience instills in him a strong sense of an Austrian nation as something separate
from Germany, returning from the front fully committed to the Austrian Republic. He also continues his studies, spending a
year in Berlin on a scholarship from the Lower Austrian Peasant League, an arm of the Christian
Social Party. Upon his return, he becomes the organizations’ secretary. He is instrumental
in reforming the Provincial Agricultural Council into the Chamber of Agriculture of Lower Austria,
eventually becoming its director in 1927. He now starts a rapid rise in politics, becoming
minister of the federal railways in 1930 and minister of agriculture from 1931. In May
1932 he becomes Chancellor at the head of a conservative coalition led by his party. Throughout his political life, Dollfuss has
considered the peasantry to be the most crucial segment of society. In his worldview, the
peasants form the foundation of a nation. In November 1932 he declares that; “our struggle
for existence would be for naught if the most important, indeed the only, basis for the
state were lost, namely German customs and the Catholic faith, which are most thoroughly
anchored in the peasantry.” His political philosophy is critical of liberal capitalism
and instead infuses Catholicism and the worship of peasantry with a socio-economic system
of corporatism, which essentially advocates that society should be organized into corporate
groups that work like human organs to contribute to the overall health of the nation, and can
quickly be ruled by a select group. Like the rest of his Christian Socials, he
is a committed Austrian nationalist. However, he has become Chancellor at a time of rising
pan-German sentiment. In fact, he is even forced to form a coalition
government with the Landbund, a German nationalist party with a mostly Protestant electoral base.
Luckily for Dollfuss, their influence is muted somewhat by another coalition partner, the
Heimatblock, the political wing of the Heimwehr who are much more sympathetic to Austrian
nationalism. They vow to drag Austria out of the economic
slump it has found itself in since the Great Depression. It has caused widespread dissatisfaction
throughout the country, no doubt contributing to the steadily growing National Socialist
movement. Dissatisfied Heimwehr members have swelled its ranks since Pfrimers failed putsch
and The Nazis of the Austrian Nazis, the German Nationalist Socialist’s Party DNSAP now adds
to an already complicated political militia landscape. The Heimwehr have been opposed
by the Social Democrat militia, the Republikanischer Schutzbund – the Republican Protection League.
They, in turn, not only recruit from the Social Democrats, but also from the KPÖ, the Communists.
The League now finds itself opposed both to the Heimwehr and the Nazis, who are opposed
to each other. Fighting all of them is the Freiheitsbund, the Freedom League, a Conservative
based militia like the Heimwehr. However, unlike the Heinwehr, The Freedom League is
firmly dedicated to protecting Liberal Democracy, while also putting up violent resistance to
the left. But Dolfuss soon gets an opportunity to counter
the rising Nazi tide. On March 4, 1933, the National Council (the
lower house of the parliament) is debating how to solve an ongoing railway workers’ strike.
The final vote is expected to be extremely close, so much so that the political decisions
taken to win the vote will result in the parliament literally eliminating itself. Now, the constitutional makeup of the First
Republic is pretty complicated. But basically, the National Council has a President as well
as a second and third President, who together are responsible for running political affairs
and administrative proceedings. The Presidents are elected and belong to political parties
just like every other National Council member, but they are not allowed to vote. Following
uproar around a previous ballot, Karl Renner resigns from his position as First President
so that he can give his Social Democrat party an extra vote. Second President, Rudolf Ramek
takes up his post. But he too then resigns so he can cast his vote for the Christian
Social Party. Third President, Sepp Straffner is now in charge of things, but as you might
already expect, he too resigns so that he can vote for his Greater German People’s Party. The National Council now finds itself in a
bit of a problem. You see, there has to be a sitting president for a vote to take place,
but they have all resigned so that they can vote. Parliament has effectively become paralyzed
and Dollfuss, hardly sympathetic to democratic tradition in the first place, seizes his chance. Claiming that the ongoing crisis is “not
provided for in the constitution,” he puts the Council out of session. Using the 1917
Wartime Economy Authority Law he seizes power to ensure it would be the last session. He
claims that he has done this following what he terms “Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments”
(the self-elimination of the parliament). But it is nothing short of a coup d ‘état.
The law curtails freedom of the press and freedom of assembly, beginning the process
which will see Austria slide into a dictatorship. In fact, Dollfuss has more or less instituted
a fascist, or rather an ‘Austrofascist,’ regime. As we have seen before, Fascism can be a pretty
hard concept to define, and “Austrofascism” has some pretty unique characteristics to
it. It develops out of two strands. First is Dolfuss’
own staunchly conservative and nationalist Christian Social Party. It has strong traditions
of anti-Semitism, anti-Socialism, and anti-liberalism. The second strand comes from the fear generated
by the Marxist revolutions in Hungary and Bavaria in 1919. These events seem to confirm
that the specter of communism really is haunting Europe. Now many look to Italian Fascism as
a way to counter it. Even more like its Italian inspiration, Austrofacism is both clerical
and corporatist in nature. Central to its ideology is the belief that Austria must remain
Catholic. This partly explains why it is so anti-German, a country dominated politically
by Prussian protestants. Although some Austrofascists do have common
ground with the German Nazis, Dolfuss simply can’t afford the Nazi’s making any gains
in his Austrian homeland. Following the communal elections in Innsbruck in May 1933, which
sees the Austrian Nazis gain 40% of the vote, he takes even more drastic action. State and communal polls are banned, parliament
is dissolved, and Dolfuss establishes the Vaterländische Front (Patriotic Front). In
typical fascist rhetoric, the new party purportedly represents a transcending of partisan ideology.
To make it a little easier to transcend, Dolfuss also ensures the other parties are banned
from participating in politics. He also forbids the militia, specifically the Social Democrat
and Communist League, although they do continue to exist in the underground. Several of the actual parties themselves are
next. The Communist Party goes on the May 27, and following a Nazi hand-grenade attack
in Krems, killing one and wounding close to thirty, the DNSAP are banned in June. But this does not stop the Nazi movement’s
threat to an independent Austria. With financial aid from Germany, its terrorism
continues throughout the year, resulting in a death toll of five and dozens more injured.
Leading DNSAP members also flee to Bavaria to found the Austrian Legion to prepare to
re-enter their homeland via an invasion. Now resistance to the Dollfuss regime is coming
from multiple fronts. Social Democrats are still taking to the streets to protest and
are often accompanied by the armed members of the forbidden League. In February 1934,
the League finally attempts to take down the Dolfuss government and the brief, but violent
Austrian Civil War starts. In the space of less than a week, Heimwehr and League forces
clash throughout Austria’s cities. Hundreds die. Thousands are wounded. But Dollfuss emerges
victorious, cracks down on all hostilities and uses the crisis to increase and consolidate
his power. A few months later he proclaims the May Constitution. This formally abolishes
democracy, while also bringing the Catholic Church into the center of political life,
declaring that all laws come from God on high. Now, Nazi Germany may be a constant threat
to an independent Austria, but Fascist Italy proves itself a perhaps surprising ally. In March 1934, Italy, Hungary and Austria
sign a bunch of agreements in Rome. These ‘Rome Protocols’ are mainly economic but are
a clear sign to Hitler that the Southern Catholic countries are a united bloc not to be messed
with. It is not actually that surprising that Mussolini
is willing to leave Hitler in the cold. His ideology of Italian exceptionalism is pretty
much at odds with Nazi beliefs in a superior Germanic race. More importantly, he is concerned
about Italian territorial integrity. In the very North of the country lives a sizeable
German minority, constituting a majority in South Tyrol. Now, Hitler’s race motivated
expansionism means that he clearly has his eyes on these lands. Dollfuss, however, is
not, giving Mussolini a vital buffer against Hitler’s Greater Germanic Reich. In April
1933, Mussolini even told Dollfuss that “if necessary, Italy would defend Austria’s
independence by force of arms.” Dollfuss takes this to heart and strengthened in his
confidence, he makes it unmistakably clear that he is opposed to a Nazi incursion into
Austria. Hardly a man to let things slide, Hitler ramps
up Nazi activities in Austria. Things come to a violent head on July 25 1934, when 154
men from the Austrian SS, all trained by the army but dismissed because of their Nazi connections,
break into the Chancellery building in Vienna. Now, rumors have been flying for quite some
time that something like this is going to happen, so Dollfuss is immediately alerted.
His cabinet members flee, but he does not and stays to resist, but he is soon shot and
critically wounded. The Nazi putschists are by now caught in a standoff with the army
and the police. Dollfuss begs them first for medical treatment and then the Last Rites.
The Nazis deny his pleas and a few hours into the putsch he dies. Meanwhile, a radio station
is captured, and a broadcast goes out declaring the formation of a Nazi government and a call
for a general uprising. Upon hearing the news, Mussolini, whose wife
has actually been entertaining the rest of the Dollfuss family, is furious. He immediately
denounces the putsch and threatens war with Germany in defense of Austria. We don’t
actually know the exact role Hitler plays in these events, but regardless of his direct
involvement, he now professes Germany’s innocence in the whole affair. The “Nazi government”
occupying the Viennese Chancellery is suddenly left without any support, denounced by the
party and man who they killed a political leader for. They surrender that evening and
are subsequently executed. We do know that the plan had been for SA units
to stage uprisings across the country simultaneously. But poor planning and SA-SS rivalry get in
the way of this. There are a few bloody skirmishes over the next days, but it is nothing close
to the revolution they had hoped for. Overall, the July Putsch has left close to 300 people
killed and many more injured. It’s a bit of an embarrassing failure for the Nazis.
They had expected the army and police to be on their side, but they mostly stayed loyal
to the Austrian state. Thousands of Nazi party members are now also thrown into detention
camps. Nevertheless, it has shaken Austria to its
core. Kurt Schuschnigg succeeds Dolfuss as Austria’s
leader. He will largely continue the work of his predecessor, desperately trying to
keep Catholic Austria independent from the Third Reich. He will, however, find himself
increasingly isolated on the international stage and be forced to adopt, like the rest
of the European powers, a policy of appeasement towards the ever-encroaching Nazi state. And
when that power, the Nazi German Reich marches into Austria, it will be to the tune of millions
of Austrians hailing the new rise of the German race. Despite Dollfuss, despite Schsuschnigg,
millions will join the Nazis. Eventually, countless Austrians will participate, and
even lead the Nazi terror machine. We’ve made an episode about the Fascist
movement in general… it will be right here any moment now. Our TimeGhost Army member
for this episode is NN. It’s thanks to our TimeGhost army members’ contribution that
we can continue shining a light on these events. And if like the Austrians, you find yourself
looking down the barrel of a gun, remember Harvey Specter’s thoughts about not being
out of choices… ”You take the gun, or you pull out a bigger one. Or, you call their
bluff. Or, you do any one of a hundred and forty-six other things.” Prost!

100 Comments on "Not all Fascists Are Nazis – Civil War in Austria | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1934 Part 2 of 4"


  1. A lot comes together in this episode. Austria in 1934 is where a lot of political movements, ideologies and methods we saw throughout the '20s and '30s in previous episodes go head to head. We explain how Austro-Fascism differs from fascism and how Nazism and Austrofascism engage in a violent clash. (READ MORE FOR OUR STANCE ON THE POLITICAL LEFT-RIGHT SPECTRUM)

    So, this episode covers Communism, Fascism, Austrofascism and Nazism in the context of Austria in 1934. I can predict some of the comments that will appear under this video, so allow me to explain how we interpret and explain the key differences between some of these. In academia, we use a right-left axis to place political movements on based on their ideology, NOT just because of their methods or form of state. Our definition is not politically motivated or does not relate to current day politics. We only apply this definition to the specific historical context of the interwar era and World War Two. In short: totalitarian or authoritarian governments are not all the same. Fascism and Nazism are generally placed on the right because they were driven by state or race superiority, Communism and Socialism are placed on the left as they were driven by class-differences and (theoretical) equality.

    Granted, there is a rich scholarly debate surrounding the function and interpretation of the left-right axis. Anyone who is interested to read more about that can read 'Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (2017) 15-17.' However, there are limits to what is accepted as an academic argument and what is plain propaganda. Socialism and Nazism are not the same by any respectable definition. Communism and Nazism both embracing totalitarian regimes does not make them the same. We love to engage in debates about this, and we will do so with anyone who presents a real argument with real examples and sources. We will not engage with trolls who are politicising this historical debate with a modern-day agenda.

    Cheers,
    Joram

    RULES OF CONDUCT
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    AVOID PARTISAN POLITICS AS FAR AS YOU CAN we reserve the right to cut off vitriolic debates.
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    RACISM, XENOPHOBIA, OR SLAMMING OF MINORITIES will lead to an immediate ban.
    PARTISAN REVISIONISM, ESPECIALLY HOLOCAUST AND HOLODOMOR DENIAL will lead to an immediate ban.

    Reply

  2. I had forgotten this event existed in 1934 but I am really glad you covered it since I don't know much about it.

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  3. It's almost as if short people (or perceived short people) go pretty crazy with power when they get crazy amounts of power and authority.

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  4. I believe you can be a fascist without being an antisemitic, but you cannot be a nazi without being an antisemitic as the two are so ingrained they are inseparable.
    However neither is a good system of government as they all default into an autocratic state.

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  5. Nice Lederhosen and Stein of beer, really interesting and complex presentation delivered with gusto, the only thing missing was some buxom serving wenches and a thigh slapping dance routine from Indy…….ah ! how I miss the 'Oktoberfest '……..:-)

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  6. How come the audio quality changes on different episodes? This video sounds really good, but Part 1 sounds a lot worse.

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  7. Dollfuss looks short in all these pictures but he doesn't really look like he's 4'11" he looks about 5'3 or 4" unless everyone in those pics is also really short.

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  8. A point many people forget is that we Tyroleans are usually short xD. Also a bit of a side note on the video, dollfuß did keept Austria's claim to sudtirol but he didn't came much vocal on them for obvious reasons

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  9. A most interesting episode indeed. I noticed the Austrian machine gunner had his M16 helmet on back to front , 6 minutes in to the video!

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  10. Indy, I think that your lederhose is bayerisch and not Austrian 😂
    Also having live in Austria, I can recommend a very good exposition about the interwar years at the Linz museum.
    People literally were starving after the 1st World War. Those were very complicated times.
    Not easy to explain to today's Austrians since Austria is quite a wealthy country today….

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  11. It seems like America being isolated from the rest of the world really makes us understate the threat that communism and fascism posed after World War I. I think would be interesting if you all would do something on how Smedley Butler, one of the most decorated Marine generals, became an isolationist and was trying to be recruited by fascist in the US for a coup.

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  12. I love too see a video on Ireland from the Irish work of Independence to the Irish civil war to the Irish state emerging from the ashes of war

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  13. The Massive Beer returns! It onlyseems to comes out in vids discussing fascism / nazism – the significance escapesme . Obviously except for Hitlers Munich pub crawl turns into a coup thing in 1922.

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  14. Fun fact, YouTube is now censoring commentary and threatening removal from all of Google after the user has attempted to delete it, even if that comment is less than ten minutes old.

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  15. Great video! I almost find the interwar years more interesting than the war itself. It's like watching a horror movie buildup into a supernova that destroyed a continent.

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  16. Indy is killing the outfit game today! #jodlwibes
    Thanks for this episode. This is actually a kinda not so talked about topic in history books in general. I did hear about Dollfuss, but not that much tbh, altough I sit in the neighbouring country. Way too much topics about Horthy in Hungarian books from this time.

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  17. Hey Indy, I want to mention that I am your avid follower ever since the Great war channel. Now, these between two wars and World war two-channel are really good as well. For, me more than the war, the political and economic situation that made people into a cruel killing machine interests me. So you can understand how excited I am of these videos. The question I have though is that, after all this opposition for the NSDAP in Austria, and the work of political leaders of Austria, how come Hitler was able to incorporate Austria into the Reich so easily. How was he welcomed into Austria with a cheering crowd? If allies knew that Austria wants to unify with Germany and expressly forbid it from happening in Versailles what was their reaction to Anschluss.

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  18. 16:08 The reason is much simpler. Mussolini is aware what Hitler means when he talks about "Das Dritte Reich", The Third Realm. Mussolini understands that Hitler's "Reich" is the "successor" of the the Holy Roman Empire, the first realm, of which Italy used to be a part. Mussolini supports the regime in Austria because he knows that should Hitler be successful on the global stage Nazi-Germany would come for Italy in the end. You can tell from this political move that Mussolini understands the predicament of the situation he found himself in. Should Hitler beat his enemies it's the end for Mussolini and he knows it, but should Nazi-Germany lose the war too badly then it would take Italy down with it. Thus an argument could be made that Mussolini realizes early on that the "end game" for him looks like it did in the end for Italy. Italy can pick by whom it is defeated and perhaps on what terms, but it will be defeated by a larger power.

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  19. Quit calling the National Socialist German Government by the pejorative term “NAZIS”. You make yourself’s sound as if you have an agenda, an agenda that has all ready been told, know tell the real story, the side of the National Socialist! Example: read this article about the war to prevent Southern Independence; https://www.lewrockwell.com/2006/01/john-v-denson/why-did-lincoln-invade-the-south/ See! America’s so-called “Civil” was not about Slavery but about a central government keeping all the States in One Union.

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  20. As an Austrian, where this topic is constantly brought up, this was a particularly interesting episode. I have to mention that I've never before managed to understand how exactly Dollfuß went about getting rid of the Parlament, as that detail never came up in my history lessons.

    On a side-note, my Uni Professor brought up the point that the "Austrian Civil War" should maybe be reconsidered as it does not actually fulfill most of the criteria that we use to define a civil war nowadays. One major point being that the overwhelmingly vast majority of the austrian population remained completely unaffected and uninvolved by the fighting.

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  21. I'll be quite honest I'm starting to prefer the between the war series more than the general weekly output of the ww2 channel. The narratives are better built up and telling history in these well composed stories which get to delve a bit more into the detail gives much better coherence and depth.

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  22. The more I learn in depth of the political depths of the 2 World Wars and the interim, the more I think that we may have thrown the baby out with the bath water. While Nazism is extremely bad, it seems to be an extreme form of fascism and fascism itself seems to have some redeeming qualities. I'm not saying I'm pro-fascist but some of the values are admirable. I can see how in the ideological quagmire that was the early 20th century that even horrid Nazism seemed relatable. Seems like we might be in a new era of an ideological quagmire. Communism/Democratic Socialism might seem like good ideas to create a utopia but Nazism/Fascism promised the same thing, and we saw how that worked out, not to mention Stalinism/Maoism after the war. Republicanism still seems like the best option, though I do fantasize about monarchies from time to time, thanks to Sabaton lol

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  23. Hitler was Austrian, Hitler was a Nazi, Hitler took over Austria, Austria became Nazified. The only difference between Fascist and Racist is the spelling.

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  24. All the arguing about the ideas of the political spectrum and which ones are good or bad, is like arguing about the ingredients of a cake and our personal tastes. Some people prefer salty cakes, some yeast free, some even like cakes made of rice. But the point is we all like cakes and there are certain ingredients essential, for a cake to be born.
    Likewise we can't have government without Socialism, (to some degree) and we can't have a country, without a measure of Nationalism/ patriotism. But we all, (outside the sanitorium), want a government of sorts and an organised community, that has Laws and rights for it's inhabitants, i.e. a country.
    We will never all agree, on the quantities, of the qualities, we want for the shape and texture of our collective cake. But the political process, that's evolved through countless generations and painful sacrifices, has given us some balance of views and instilment of tolerance. This system we enjoy and take for granted, should be held highly and celebrated.
    We all benefit from listening and communicating and putting our own views to the test, of scrutiny from foes and friends.
    These are the vitals of Democracy and avoidance of Totalitarianism and civil war.

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  25. I wonder if you will talk of Alexander Stambolysky and the Bulgarian Agrarian League. It was a pretty interesting political alternative to the big ideologies of the time.

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  26. Wow, the rifle Engelbert would have used is almost as tall as he is at almost 130cm. With its bayonet it would tower over him

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  27. Despite always watching, everytime the outro music starts up I get taken off guard thinking James Bond is around

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  28. What a riveting Austrian story, dissolving parliament, getting the Catholic Church to second/support laws, alliance with Italy as a both a geographical and ideological buffer against Hitler's Nazi Germany and a coup de ta by Austrian Nazis which ultimately Hitler denies……

    Is there a movie or book that details this?!

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  29. I think Indy just films new episodes for the drinking end. Can't blame him, Prost!!!

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  30. As kids growing up in the Netherlands my dad and uncle wore lederhosen and my dad said they were uncomfortable and he hated wearing them. Any comments on the comfort of yours Indy?

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  31. The one common thing about all the parties is that they do not believe the individual has a right to exist for themselves, i.e., in individual sovereignty. The result, is that all parties agree that the people are slaves to some "higher" purpose.

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  32. I think my head just exploded. 💥 You just can't make this stuff up folks! 🙄 Say, Indy, could you explain more about the three presidents thing? Who thought that one up? Might they be allowed to vote in the case of a tie?

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  33. Indy, you neglected to mention that there were at least a dozen 'German States' fighting on Austria's side in the Austro-Prussian War. And, why didn't you stand up and model your lederhosen?

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  34. What do you do when you sign an alliance pact with poland then they get invaded by two countries but you only declare war on one nation but not the other. Then when the war is over, you allow Poland to be occupied and raped for 50 years by bolsheviks. What do you do?
    Man, it's as if the allies only used Poland as an excuse to destroy another nation.
    So weird…

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  35. This is my favourite history channel, and believe me I watch a few. I studied the British Imperial Century leading up to WW1. I have also done a lot of reading and viewing of WW1 and WW2, but have such a rudimentary knowledge of the history between the two world wars. Than you for enlightening me.

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  36. This is such a great channel it brings events out of the shadows of history for everyone too see. And with that a better understanding of history around WW2..

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  37. There I did it!!! Shouldva done it years ago!!! Youre the best!!! I knit pick details. Thats my Job. Thanks Indy and Crew!!!!

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  38. Diversity was their strength LOL
    History will repeat itself because the socialists/communists/globalists will never stop pushing their insanity. Given the choice between these sides, even I would join the fascists.

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  39. Need a president to have a vote, but president resigns so he can vote. It’s like when you need Eddy Van Halen to join your band so you need the best music video to get him, but you need Eddy Van Halen to have the best video ever.

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  40. Once again, great details on yet another side of evils opposed to one another, gives interesting points of view in an often simplified political landscape. Keep up the great work!

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  41. FYI Timeghost team Youtube may have issues with the Swastika in the thumbnail of this video.
    Relevant Gun Jesus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=of8okKZg7UA

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  42. 8:15 Would just throw in here when Indy says "corporatism" he doesn't mean like, economic corporations like we are accustomed to (though they count), the broader definition being worked with here is inclusive of organizations like the church, go figure, who would all have regions of responsibility.

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