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Socialism | Wikipedia audio article Socialism | Wikipedia audio article

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and workers’ self-management of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, though social rather than individual ownership is…

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Conjectures and Refutations | Wikipedia audio article Conjectures and Refutations | Wikipedia audio article

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.Generally regarded as one of the 20th century’s greatest philosophers of science, Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. A theory in the empirical sciences can…

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Rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire | Wikipedia audio article Rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire | Wikipedia audio article

The rise of the Western notion of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the breakdown of the Ottoman millet concept. An understanding of the concept of the nationhood prevalent in the Ottoman Empire, which was different from the current one as it was centered on religion, helps us to understand what happened during the…

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Karl Raimund Popper | Wikipedia audio article Karl Raimund Popper | Wikipedia audio article

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.Generally regarded as one of the 20th century’s greatest philosophers of science, Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. A theory in the empirical sciences can…

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