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History of Solidarity | Wikipedia audio article History of Solidarity | Wikipedia audio article

The history of Solidarity (Polish: Solidarność, pronounced [sɔliˈdarnɔɕt͡ɕ] (listen)), a Polish non-governmental trade union, began on August 14, 1980, at the Lenin Shipyards (now Gdańsk Shipyards) at its founding by Lech Wałęsa and others. In the early 1980s, it became the first independent labor union in a Soviet-bloc country. Solidarity gave rise to a broad,…

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First Red Scare | Wikipedia audio article First Red Scare | Wikipedia audio article

The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, due to real and imagined events; real events included the Russian Revolution and anarchist bombings. At its height in 1919–1920, concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American…

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Fascist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article Fascist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article

The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Italian: Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (“Italian League of Combat”) the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of…

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Red flag (politics) | Wikipedia audio article Red flag (politics) | Wikipedia audio article

In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, trade unions, left-wing politics, and historically of anarchism; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99). Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use…

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Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII | Wikipedia audio article Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII | Wikipedia audio article

Persecutions against the Catholic Church took place throughout the pontificate of Pope Pius XII (1939-1958). Pius’ reign coincided with the Second World War, the commencement of the Cold War and the accelerating European decolonisation. During this time, the Catholic Church faced persecution under Fascist and Communist governments. The Nazi persecution of the church was at…

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Communist League | Wikipedia audio article Communist League | Wikipedia audio article

The Communist League (German: Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established on June 1, 1847 in London, England. The organisation was formed through the merger of the League of the Just, headed by Karl Schapper and the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels, Belgium, in which Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the dominant…

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Socialist Party of America | Wikipedia audio article Socialist Party of America | Wikipedia audio article

The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.In the first…

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Communist Party of China | Wikipedia audio article Communist Party of China | Wikipedia audio article

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People’s Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was…

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Revolutions of 1989 | Wikipedia audio article Revolutions of 1989 | Wikipedia audio article

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe…

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