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Fascist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article Fascist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article

The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Italian: Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (“Italian League of Combat”) the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of…

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Red flag (politics) | Wikipedia audio article Red flag (politics) | Wikipedia audio article

In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, trade unions, left-wing politics, and historically of anarchism; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99). Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use…

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Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII | Wikipedia audio article Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII | Wikipedia audio article

Persecutions against the Catholic Church took place throughout the pontificate of Pope Pius XII (1939-1958). Pius’ reign coincided with the Second World War, the commencement of the Cold War and the accelerating European decolonisation. During this time, the Catholic Church faced persecution under Fascist and Communist governments. The Nazi persecution of the church was at…

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Communist League | Wikipedia audio article Communist League | Wikipedia audio article

The Communist League (German: Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established on June 1, 1847 in London, England. The organisation was formed through the merger of the League of the Just, headed by Karl Schapper and the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels, Belgium, in which Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the dominant…

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Socialist Party of America | Wikipedia audio article Socialist Party of America | Wikipedia audio article

The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.In the first…

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Communist Party of China | Wikipedia audio article Communist Party of China | Wikipedia audio article

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People’s Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was…

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Revolutions of 1989 | Wikipedia audio article Revolutions of 1989 | Wikipedia audio article

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations that is sometimes used to describe…

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The Communist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article The Communist Manifesto | Wikipedia audio article

The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as…

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Ethiopia | Wikipedia audio article Ethiopia | Wikipedia audio article

Ethiopia (; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, listen ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk listen ), is a country in the northeastern part of Africa, popularly known as the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northwest, to the northeast…

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French Communist Party | Wikipedia audio article French Communist Party | Wikipedia audio article

The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français, PCF ; French pronunciation: ​[paʁti kɔmynist fʁɑ̃sɛ]) is a communist party in France. Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a strong influence in French politics, especially at the local level. In 2012, the PCF claimed 138,000 members including 70,000 who have…

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