The New Science of Practical Wisdom

The New Science of Practical Wisdom


(mouse clicks and beeping) (fast-paced music) – [Charles] A team of leading academics, including neurologists,
psychiatrists, anthropologists, psychologists, moral
philosophers, and epidemiologists recently produced a paper entitled, “The New Science of Practical Wisdom,” with the aim of introducing
the science of wisdom research to the broader academic community. My name is Charles
Cassidy, I run a project called Evidence Based Wisdom,
and I was lucky enough to be asked to be involved. This animation gives an overview of what was covered in the paper, just with fewer words and more pictures. So, let’s begin. Consider for a moment, are
the smartest people you know also the wisest? Not necessarily. While traditional intellectual reasoning has brought us a long
way, there’s a growing scientific understanding
that perhaps being smart is only part of the picture, especially when it comes to navigating the uncertainties and
challenges of the modern world. Here’s paper lead author
and Senior Associate Dean for Healthy Aging and professor
of psychiatry neurosciences at the University of California
San Diego, Dilip Jeste. – [Dilip] If you look
at the number of papers published on the topic of
the topic of wisdom publicly since the 1970s, we see incredible growth in the amount of new work in this area. Like other constructs,
which were once considered too fuzzy for serious political science, such as the study of
emotions or consciousness, wisdom is fast emerging
as a subject of rigorous academic research across a
whole range of disciplines. – [Charles] Another of
the paper’s authors, professor of psychology Howard Nussbaum, Director of University of Chicago’s Center for Practical
Wisdom, frames it like this. – [Howard] I think there’s been a change in the public perception of the qualities that are important in a number
of domains of human life. People have moved from
thinking about intelligence, being smart, being clever,
which I think was a hallmark of the Clinton and the Bush
eras into the Obama era, where the discourse about
empathy in the judiciary became part of the national discourse, and that has moved us
to talking about wisdom. – [Charles] Humans have
been driven to bottle and pass on wisdom to feed
early civilizations emerged. Texts from early Hindu,
Greek and Christian cultures indicate that wisdom was
highly prized construct. Wisdom entered the
laboratory for the first time in the 1970s, when the early
empirical research began, and since then, wisdom has
been making the journey from vague abstraction to
an empirically grounded concept of human ability. A number of factors seem
to be driving this process. Populations are aging. We have a greater range of
life options open to us. And of course, we have more sophisticated psychological, behavioral
and neurobiological measurement tools at our disposal. A robust scientific study of wisdom is beginning to take shape. Here’s epidemiologist and
professor of psychiatry Dan Blazer, another of
the paper’s authors. – [Dan] With tools coming
online, they potentially can help us to explore the areas. I think we’re in a much better position. There is a move among scientists to not be quite as reductionistic,
that maybe that puts people too much in silos, and so I
think people are recognizing that the pendulum needs
to be swinging back to where disciplines are
speaking to one another and wisdom actually turns
out to be one of those areas. – [Charles] So first off,
how do we define wisdom? One essential distinction to make up front is between theoretical
wisdom and practical wisdom. While theoretical wisdom
pertains to more abstract ideas about the nature of reality
and the role of humanity, scientists’ empirical
efforts are principally on practical wisdom, which is more akin to making good decisions
in our daily lives. But even in this more grounded
sense, practical wisdom has been defined many different ways in the scientific research community. Nonetheless, there is a
short list of components frequently shared by many
of these definitions, and this paper proposes
that wisdom is a trait that includes social decision
making, emotional regulation, pro-social behavior that
is guided by capacities such as empathy and
compassion, self-reflection, acceptance of uncertainty,
decisiveness and spirituality. So how is wisdom measured? Wisdom is, in fact, measured frequently much the same way as other
psychological constructs: through self-report questionnaires. While popular, these do have limitations, since subjects often,
consciously or unconsciously, fail to present the most accurate
assessments of abilities. Nonetheless, they continue
to be a valuable tool in the field. Three self-report scales currently used in empirical research are the three-dimensional wisdom scale, developed by Monica Ardelt, which frames wisdom as
consisting of cognitive, reflective and defective dimensions. The self-assessed wisdom scale, developed by Jeffrey Dean Webster, which proposes five dimensions of wisdom. And the San Diego wisdom scale, covering six components of wisdom, which intriguingly share
a common neurocircuitry, potentially hinting at a neurological map for wise reasoning in the brain. Beyond the traditional self-report scales, performance based measures, such as the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, have been widely employed in the field. More recently, Brienza and Grossman’s situated wise reasoning
scale has been developed to help bridge the gap
between the abstract, decontextualized nature of
traditional self report measures, and the more concrete,
contextualized nature of performance based measures
by employing self-reports about concrete situations
people have faced in their own lives. Researchers increasingly use a combination of different measures
to improve reliability. Ideally, to really assess the
subject’s level of wisdom, they may need to be continuously
monitored for weeks. Computer based analysis
of such data may well then be able to more reliably identify patterns of wise and unwise behavior. However, the ethics of
such a practice suggest that this is still some way off. In recent years, scientists
studying wisdom began to focus on the biological processes that underpin this psychological capacity. Researchers are now asking, what is happening in the brain
when we make wise decisions? In attempting to chart a
neurological map for wisdom, researchers focus not on
exceptionally wise brains. Rather, they study brains
which no longer capable of what we recognize as wise behavior, such as those belonging to
patients with the brain disease frontotemporal dementia. Here’s another of the papers co-authors, behavioral neurologist Bruce Miller. – [Bruce] Frontotemporal dementia
is a degenerative disease that hits the circuits in
the brain that we’ve learned are critical for making
pro-social decisions, for making good decisions,
for caring about others, for helping others, and
so we see systematic loss of this set of abilities in people with frontotemporal dementia. This is telling us that there
is a circuitry in the brain that is involved with wisdom,
compassion, caring about others and even making good
decisions about ourselves. – [Charles] Scientists also
study key experiments of nature, in which injuries to certain brain regions also lead to a loss of wise behavior. The most famous of these is
the case of Phineas Gage, in which an accident at
work resulted in iron rods damaging Gage’s frontal lobes. He was transformed from a
considerate and dependable man into an anti-social
and volatile character. Dilip Jeste’s team at UC San
Diego have integrated research into such degenerative
diseases and case studies with an extensive review of
the neuroscientific literature relevant to wisdom related
processes to propose a possible model for the
neurobiology of wisdom. Here’s Dilip Jeste again. – [Dilip] Obviously,
charting a neurological map for a behavior as complex as wisdom is a considerable challenge, and any model is
necessarily oversimplified. Our putative model proposes
that this strong like behaviors emerge from a balance between more ancient and more recent regions of the brain. The more ancient region of the
brain is the limbic cortex, specifically the amygdala,
which is associated to strong emotions. The more recent regions of the brain include the prefrontal
cortex, in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex, which is associated with
emotional regulation and compassion, the dorsal
lateral prefrontal cortex, which is associated
with utilitarian choices and the anterior cingulate
cortex, which is associated with detecting conflict
between those two parts of the prefrontal cortex. – [Charles] In this simplified
model of the wise brain, wise behavior is achieved
through the balance between these regions to
find the optimal solution to meet our needs and
the needs of our society. A further question that
scientists have raised asks if wisdom’s exclusively
a human attribute. Considering the brain of
homo sapiens, the wise man has evolved from the brain
of our ape ancestors, might these apes also share
our capacity for wisdom? The tools of evolutionary
neuroscience enable us to chart the evolution of regions of the brain, such as the frontolimbic circuitry, which are associated with wise behaviors, like planning and judgment. How much of these changed
since we parted ways from the last common ancestor
we share with the great apes? Here’s paper co-author,
professor of evolutionary anthropology in neuroscience,
Katarina Semendeferi. – [Katarina] What seems to be standing out in the human brain, in
terms of its anatomy, are a few things so far. One of the fundamental things is that, because development is
protracted in humans, and it takes much longer
for the brain to develop, some changes in the way the
building blocks of the brain the cells undergo are
attracted and they end up in larger sectors that, we
assume, then make some difference in terms of function. We don’t know that for sure,
but we’ll make the assumption. So, part of the frontal
lobe and some neurons in the frontal cortex seem to
take much longer to develop, and again, some parts, not
the whole, but some parts end up being larger in human adults when compared to adult apes. The frontal cortex is very important for a lot of cognitive functions, so we assume that those
changes have some meaning in terms of unique complexity in our mind. And another dimension of what is different is the realization that
structures and systems like the limbic system
that we used to think of as very primitive, are not changed much, and actually selectively
has undergone changes in the human brain after
the last common ancestor with the chimpanzees. And again, that whole system
may be relevant to wisdom, people would argue, so then
we may have some evidence, assuming that that
translates into function, that there is something
there that’s specifically different in humans. – [Charles] The many
similarities in brain biology suggest that apes may be
capable of demonstrating some level of wisdom. The critical differences,
however, indicate that our human capacity for wisdom has
evolved beyond the abilities of our ancestors and living ape cousins. In light of such research,
perhaps the label homo sapiens, wise man, should be
updated to the more prudent homo sapientior, the wiser man. Researchers have also
recently started to explore the role of human genes in the transfer of wisdom
across generations. Genetic science suggests
that genes are selected for primarily on the basis
of the benefit they bring prior to reproduction. Genes for helping us in
old age shouldn’t make it into the human genome,
yet the recent discovery of grandparent genes challenges this idea. These genes essentially
protect the aging human body and brain, and their discovery suggests that the period of old
age is somehow beneficial to our survival as a group. Here’s paper co-author Pascal Gagneux, who works in University
of California San Diego’s Department of Pathology and Anthropology. – [Pascal] Grandparent genes
are kind of a provocative attempt to name genetic
variants that we came across that are associated with protection from Alzheimer’s disease,
which is very odd, because the dogma in
evolutionary biology is that natural selection comes to a grinding halt around the time that
we cease reproduction, which in human for females is, you know, 30 years before you die, or even more. So the notion that there could
be something uniquely human, derived genetic variants
only seen in humans when compared to hundreds
of great ape genomes, and those associated with
protection of cognition, made us curious as to the
possibility that in humans who have important
transmissions of culture via language, instruction
storytelling and so forth, there might actually
be a late phase in life where selection is possible
by a kin selection, where non-reproductive females or males, grandmas and grandpas, by still
being cognitively together, convey really important
knowledge and cultural constructs to their younger kin that
may be carrying the same genetic variants that then
increase in frequency. – [Charles] As Gagneux
describes, the role of language is incredibly important here, enabling older adults
to effectively pass on their hard earned knowledge to their inexperienced grandchildren
and other younger kin. – [Pascal] But in our
case, we can tell stories, we can relay concepts, we
can time travel together with the younger kin and teach
them really important lessons about how they ought to
behave, what they should avoid, where to go in times of crisis or famine and things like that. And so, language just potentiates
the value of transmission, and opens up new possibilities. So language as a new transmission mode and late age, normal
reproduction for females, a more risky reproduction,
that together opens up this window to selection late in life. That would be a peculiar
situation in our species. – [Charles] Indeed, it
seems that the human genome appears to have baked in a mechanism for the intergenerational
transfer of wisdom. In fact, the well documented
grandmother hypothesis suggests that when grandparents
help in raising offspring, fertility increases, resulting
in larger populations. Paper co-author and
paleoanthropologist Rachel Caspari suggests that population resilience may be an important factor in the
emergence of cultural traditions and collective wisdom. Specifically, her research
suggests that populations with a higher rate of old
to young people, in fact, survived for more generations
prior to collapse. – [Rachel] So if you have a population like Neanderthal populations,
where there were very few older adults, because there
was so much mortality, they had to sustain a
very high fertility rate, and if that wasn’t sustained, the population would come to an end. So once you have Upper
Paleolithic populations that are living longer,
the populations become more resilient, allowing cultural
traditions to be passed on for a much longer period of time. One of the things that we
now know is that Neanderthals and the middle Stone Age people in Africa, occasionally did these very
symbolic things as well. They also had art, so it’s
not necessarily a question of cognition, it’s a
question of persistence. – [Charles] Research from
both the fields of genetics and anthropology makes a strong case that at the population level,
the presence of older people may be beneficial for making
our communities wiser. Then there is, of course, the question of wisdom, context and culture. What a biological model
of wisdom would suggest consistency across human behavior. In the real world, we see
certain inconsistencies in the way wisdom is framed
at different points in history and in different cultures. Much like the process of evolution, which is grounded in biology
but interacts with culture, wisdom too appears grounded
in biological processes, which then interact with
different cultural environments. Such interaction results
in different manifestations of wisdom, having both a common core, and a culturally dependent flavor. Within a given culture,
recent work by Igor Grossman has highlighted the
power of the situation, with an individual’s
facility for wise reasoning varying considerably
in different scenarios. This then begs the question,
in which type of scenarios are we most likely to reason wisely? Here’s Howard Nussbaum again. – [Howard] Language is
fundamental to what it means to be human, and as such, I
think it’s critical in wisdom. So we see examples like Igor
Grossman’s self-distancing for the use of language. When you talk in the first person versus in the distant third person, you move away from a problem conceptually, it makes it easier to solve that problem if it’s a social problem. If you work in a foreign
language, for example, it distances you from the meaning. This is work by Vaus
Kastar and Albert Costa, distances you from that problem again, and so that notion of
being able to step back and kind of self-regulation,
language can serve that role. – [Charles] This work
suggests that gaining distance from a problem can lead
to wiser reasoning, and this is more easily done
in the presence of others. It seems the decisions taken in solitude are not likely to be our wisest. The fields of psychology and philosophy both bring interesting
perspectives to bear on the daunting question
of the meaning of life. Here’s moral philosopher
and paper co-author, Candace Vogler. – [Candace] I was mostly
interested in empathy because the findings from
this big research project that we’re just bringing to a close is that basically, self-centeredness
is the biggest problem. It’s what allows virtue,
happiness, meaning to fall apart. It’s what produces
circumstances in which you can wake up each morning
and it just feels like what settles down over you
is this vast to do list, and it’s really hard to see
what the point is of any of it, and sometimes you just soldier through, and sometimes you just think
oh no, not again, right? And we were thinking that
having a self-transcending attitude, seeing your daily
life as how you participate in a good that’s bigger
than you and yours, was what allowed these
things to come together. – [Charles] Self-transcendence,
a shift from thinking only of the small self, to a
broader focus on the big self, beyond immediate self concerns,
has also been proposed by researchers as a central
component of wisdom. Connecting to something
larger than ourselves seems critical in both
developing wisdom in life and to finding meaning in life itself. The idea that wisdom comes
with age is deeply embedded in our popular culture. Characters such as Yoda from “Star Wars” and Gandalf from “Lord
of the Rings” remind us of the wisdom of aged sages. But does the research
support such a claim? A 2016 study from the University
of California San Diego found that while yes,
physical health does decline as we age, mental well
being seemed to improve in a largely linear fashion from the age of 20 up into the 90s. In terms of mental health,
older did indeed mean happier. Further research by
psychologist Laura Carstensen also highlights that as people get older, the shortened time
horizon they experience, the sense of having less
time left, encouraged them to focus on more emotionally
meaningful goals, leading to improve
psychological well being. This work suggests that
as we age, we get happier and focus on more meaningful
goals, which may nudge us in the direction of wiser decision making. Researchers have also investigated
another popular belief, the belief that life’s
challenges and traumas lead inexorably to wisdom. Recent research by Nick Westrate at the University of Toronto
suggests that it depends on how the trauma itself is processed. If the negative events
are reflected on in an exploratory fashion, then this
can lead to gains in wisdom. If, however, efforts are put
primarily into feeling better, and the events themselves
are not explored for lessons, negative events are less
reliably transformed into wisdom gains. One thing we know for sure,
of course, is as we age, there are well documented physical changes in the human brain. It’s important to
consider how these changes might impact on the facility for wisdom. From a peek under the neural hood, does the aging process result
in the tuning of the engine or a rusting of the gears? Firstly, while the brain
demonstrates undeniable neural degeneration and
cognitive decline as it ages, that is only part of the aging story. The growth of new neurons
in some brain regions, even into adulthood,
highlights the neuro plasticity of the brain, and the
possibility for compensatory regeneration and growth. There are a number of
other relevant changes that take place as the brain ages. Firstly, PASA, or posterior
anterior shift in aging, refers to a shift in
processing from the back to the front of the
brain, resulting in tasks being handled by more
sophisticated brain regions. Next, HAROLD, or hemispherical
asymmetry reduction in older adults, refers to
tasks being more commonly shared across both halves of the brain. And finally, the positivity effect, which refers to the observation
that why younger brains tend to respond equally to
positive and negative stimuli, older brains tend to be more
responsive to positive stimuli than negative. The understanding of the
aging brain as traveling on a one way street of neural degeneration has been drastically revised
in light of such research. These changes lay down
the pathways for a range of compensatory age related
improvements in cognition. Here’s neurologist Bruce Miller again. – [Bruce] I think more and more we realize the brain is plastic, I think
there will be interventions once we recognize the problem. I think the problem in
neuroscience is this has ever been considered part of what we should study. Neuroscience was thought
to think about movement or vision or sensation or
olfaction, or possibly memory, but never the way we behave. Of course, this is the most
important set of questions that needs to be addressed. – [Charles] The field
of health and medicine is full of great uncertainty, yet important decisions
must be taken by doctors and patients on a daily basis. Here’s Dilip Jeste again. – [Dilip] Medicine is
not a perfect science. When a patient presents certain symptoms and the physician thinks
about the diagnosis, often, he or she has to consider
several different entities in the differential diagnosis,
and then think about what may be the most
likely one for this patient at the this time, and the
chain or appearance of pain, and that will certainly be different across different patients. For the patient, there are different ways of seeking the treatment, as well as following the treatment, and those ways will vary with time. Again, obviously they will
vary for different patients. So in other words, medicine
involves a lot of uncertainties, and part of wisdom is
accepting the uncertainties, and yet being decisive
when you need to be. – [Charles] As such, medicine
is a field which is positioned to benefit considerably from new research in the field of wisdom science. Doctors are asking for support in how to take better decisions, to be better able to step
outside the guideliens when the guidelines don’t apply. Medical practitioners
have also started to give more consideration to
the emotional aspects of a patient’s experience. While physicians, of
course, need to maintain a certain emotional
distance from their patients in order to provide the
most effective care, compassion should be a central component of medical training, rather
than its inevitable casualty. Here’s Dilip Jeste again. – [Dilip] I believe that
empathy and compassion are essential for wisdom. A sociopath or anti-social
person can meet other criteria for wisdom, such as emotional
regulation, decisiveness, acceptance of uncertainty,
self-reflection, but that person will
never be considered wise because he or she’s anti-social. – [Charles] Some notable
examples of wisdom based medical training are
already up and running. The Phronesis Project, for example, at the University of Virginia,
was launched in 2014, with the aim of fostering
wisdom in medical students and counteracting the negative impacts of the sometimes cynical
hidden curriculum. So, while this research
across a whole range of academic disciplines
is very encouraging, what practical changes can
we make in the real world? How might we actually make
the world a wiser place? Firstly, while not a straightforward task, the opportunity of introducing wisdom and compassion training into
education the professions needs to be taken seriously. Here’s Dan Blazer again. – [Dan] The first step
might be just finding ways to introduce the concept
into the curriculum. I think one thing we recognize is that through certain practices,
again I will speak from the perspective of
medicine, we may be training these characteristics
out of our professionals as opposed to actually encouraging them, so maybe one of the first
steps we can take is look at a more humane, more sensitive,
more socially integrative approach to being
professionals in helping people then we’ve done before, and
that may be a first step in teaching wisdom. – [Charles] Beyond the
education system, wisdom science needs to be applied to the very structure of our society’s institutions themselves. Here’s Howard Nussbaum again. – [Howard] I think that
we need to build wisdom into our institutions in different ways. So for example, we need to
build it into education, because teachers need to the
wiser, but we need to educate students about wisdom so that
perhaps they can make use of the tools of wisdom. We need to educate our
professionals in wisdom in certain kinds of ways
so that we avoid burnout, so that we improve decision making, so that we improve policies. Institutions themselves
can essentially be wise, using approaches like nudge policy to help their constituents
of an institution become wiser in their own actions, even if they’re not
thinking about it as wisdom, and then institutions
themselves can be wise when no particular individual
in the institution is wise, so it’s sort of aggregation
of quantum intelligence. – [Charles] Such changes in education, professional training and
institutional structure could go some way in
transforming our society from one that values material wealth to one that values wisdom. – [Howard] I think that
one of the big issues still remains education about wisdom. Society does not understand
and appreciate wisdom totally. There’s still a kind
of skepticism about it as kind of mythical and mystical. There’s kind of notion that
rationality and intelligence trump other kinds of cognitive
and social attributes. Understanding the importance
of wisdom to society, I think, is the immediate challenge for us to just let people know
about wisdom as not a kind of crazy notion, it’s not a mythical notion, it’s about humans and
making humanity better. – [Charles] The role of
technology in our lives is not straightforward. It of course brings
risks and opportunities. As physicist Stephen Hawking warned, our future is a race
between the growing power of our technology and the
wisdom with which we use it. Let’s make sure wisdom wins. First, some relevant threats. The World Health Organization
recently classified gaming disorder as a
mental health condition, and the National Health Service in Britain opened its first Center
for Internet Disorders. These are clear causes for concern. In terms of positives,
technology seems to offer a number of tangible new
benevolent possibilities. Unprecedented amounts of medical data can now be collected
through wearable tech. These vast data mines can be analyzed using artificial intelligence
and machine learning, potentially revealing
unforeseen medical insights. In terms of wisdom
specifically, this data may even be able to provide personal
wisdom profiles for individuals, guiding them towards wiser behavior. Here’s Dilip Jeste again. – [Dilip] The best way
to study a characteristic like wisdom in people
would be to video tape them 24/7 for months and then
examine that behavior to find out how often they
had emotional regulation, how often they were compassionate, how often they were
decisive or indecisive. Obviously, a 24/7 video recording is like “The Truman Show,” the movie. That’s impractical, illegal and unethical. But, there are new ways
now of technologies that are developing in
which this can be done, and are presumably with
the person’s consent. And then with machine learning
and artificial intelligence, we would be able to look at their behavior and categorize that as wise and unwise in the specific moment, such
as saying that the person had poor emotional
regulation 75% of the time or the person was
compassionate 50% of the time. So we retain the technology. It will take some time, but
technology is eventually going to help us measure
wisdom, and by the same token, it can also be used to enhance wisdom. – [Charles] As Jeste suggests,
there is also the hope that technology will be able to go beyond just monitoring our behavior,
even to perhaps nudging it in a wiser direction. Here’s Howard Nussbaum again. – [Howard] Technology can
also help the individual in terms of know how they
feel, changing aspects of mood, changing the way in which
you approach a problem. So from the individual,
all the way up to society, technology can penetrate
in very positive ways for helping wisdom. – [Charles] Another
practical recommendation highlighted in the paper
is the introduction of a country level wisdom index. In 1972, the nation of Bhutan, frustrated by the
limited scope of standard country level metrics, introduced the gross
national happiness index. Through the use of this framework
to guide policy decisions, they sought to shift the focus from material wealth to happiness. Might a similar approach
work for encouraging a national focus on wisdom? Developments of such an
index would, of course, be challenging, but such
a tool would be invaluable in fostering debate and increasing focus around wisdom in societies worldwide. Recent scientific research
across a broad range of fields suggests that the science
of practical wisdom is not a fuzzy construct, but
rather an empirically based field that is ripe for rapid growth. The accumulation of scientific
knowledge over the last 200 years has led some to
refer to the modern period as the Information Age. It is necessary for the
society to move beyond mere information and
enter a new age of wisdom. To read the full version of the paper, “The New science of Practical Wisdom,” head to the spring 2019 issue of “Perspectives in Biology and Medicine,” produced by Johns
Hopkins University Press. For further information
and to learn more about the new science of practical wisdom, visit the University of
California San Diego’s Center for Healthy Aging, The University of Chicago’s
Center for Practical Wisdom and evidencebasedwisdom.com.

3 Comments on "The New Science of Practical Wisdom"


  1. You begin by acknowledging the value and importance of practical wisdom – good enough start I guess – but then (within seconds) you go straight back to compartmentalizing wisdom in trivial models that rid this wisdom of its essence and meaning. I get it, you want to understand the underlying processes but those processes are the least important thing about wisdom and quite far removed from the wisdom you allege is the subject of your study. The most important thing is the actual wisdom itself and that's a subject more properly dealt with in liberal arts, literature, psychology, political science and similar subjects, not in laboratories with people in white coats reading EEG scans and connecting electrodes to patients. This lab research isn't significantly more useful as a method of studying wisdom than, say, using the particle accelerator in CERN for the same purpose. To cite a phrase from the wisdom literature tradition, " you can't get an 'ought' from an 'is' " – wisdom literature is all about the 'ought' while what you're doing is all about the 'is'…

    Reply

  2. I think when judging wisdom, one needs to consider the reason for the action not just the action.
    But often the subject does not even know the reason actually.

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *