The philosophy of Stoicism – Massimo Pigliucci

The philosophy of Stoicism – Massimo Pigliucci


You’ve been stranded thousands
of miles from home with no money or possessions. Such a predicament would make many
people despair and curse their awful fate. But for Zeno of Cyprus, it became the
foundation of his life’s work and legacy. The once wealthy merchant lost everything
when he was shipwrecked in Athens around 300 BCE. With not much else to do,
he wandered into a book shop, became intrigued by reading about Socrates, and proceeded to seek out and study
with the city’s noted philosophers. As Zeno began educating his own students, he originated the philosophy
known as Stoicism, whose teachings of virtue, tolerance,
and self-control have inspired generations of thinkers
and leaders. The name Stoicism comes
from the Stoa Poikile, the decorated public colonnade where Zeno and his disciples gathered
for discussion. Today, we colloquially
use the word stoic to mean someone who
remains calm under pressure and avoids emotional extremes. But while this captures important
aspects of Stoicism, the original philosophy was more
than just an attitude. The Stoics believed that
everything around us operates according
to a web of cause and effect, resulting in a rational structure
of the universe, which they called logos. And while we may not always
have control over the events affecting us, we can have control over
how we approach things. Rather than imagining an ideal society, the Stoic tries to deal
with the world as it is while pursuing self-improvement
through four cardinal virtues: practical wisdom, the ability to navigate complex situations
in a logical, informed, and calm manner; temperance, the exercise of self-restraint
and moderation in all aspects of life; justice, treating others with fairness even
when they have done wrong; and courage, not just in extraordinary circumstances, but facing daily challenges
with clarity and integrity. As Seneca, one of the most famous
Roman Stoics wrote, “Sometimes, even to live
is an act of courage.” But while Stoicism focuses on
personal improvement, it’s not a self-centered philosophy. At a time when Roman laws considered
slaves as property, Seneca called for their humane treatment and stressed that we all share
the same fundamental humanity. Nor does Stoicism encourage passivity. The idea is that only people
who have cultivated virtue and self-control in themselves
can bring positive change in others. One of the most famous Stoic writers
was also one of Rome’s greatest emperors. Over the course of his 19-year reign, Stoicism gave Marcus Aurelius the resolve
to lead the Empire through two major wars, while dealing with the loss of many
of his children. Centuries later, Marcus’s journals would
guide and comfort Nelson Mandela through his 27-year imprisonment during his struggle
for racial equality in South Africa. After his release and eventual victory,
Mandela stressed peace and reconciliation, believing that while the injustices
of the past couldn’t be changed, his people could confront them
in the present and seek to build a better,
more just future. Stoicism was an active school
of philosophy for several centuries in Greece and Rome. As a formal institution, it faded away, but its influence has continued
to this day. Christian theologians,
such as Thomas Aquinas, have admired and adopted its focus
on the virtues, and there are parallels between
Stoic Ataraxia, or tranquility of mind, and the Buddhist concept of Nirvana. One particularly influential Stoic
was the philosopher Epictetus who wrote that suffering stems not from the events in our lives,
but from our judgements about them. This has resonated strongly
with modern psychology and the self-help movement. For example, rational emotive
behavioral therapy focuses on changing
the self-defeating attitudes people form about
their life circumstances. There’s also Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy. Informed by Frankl’s own time
as a concentration camp prisoner, logotherapy is based on
the Stoic principle that we can harness our will power
to fill our lives with meaning, even in the bleakest situations.

100 Comments on "The philosophy of Stoicism – Massimo Pigliucci"


  1. Lmao weak take on Mandela, wouldnt call him a stoic, more a violent communist savage in truth.

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  2. Wow! How about the philosophy of my dead cat? Or the Philosophy of a puddle of water after a thunderstorm?

    Or, is Philosophy being literate?

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  3. I’m having a little trouble to truly understand the final quote.

    “we can harness our willpower to fill our life with meaning, even in the bleakest situations”

    Does this mean that we should control our feeling of NEED to do certain things because just because we THINK we need it we probably don’t and in us doing this we would begin fill our life with meaning?

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  4. Im trying to learn more about stoicism in my quest to find some help for my Adhd. Thanks for the brief but quality video!

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  5. Self observation is the key of the happiness, the lack of it is the cause of most of our problems.

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  6. "You have power over your mind, not outside events.Realize this, and you'll find strength."-Marcus Aurelius

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  7. Sounds a lot like the modern trend of 'positive thinking' that's universally promoted in mental health circles without examining its limitations.

    I do see how challenging your outlook on life can change how you perceive things and improve self-confidence in some cases, but it can be frustrating when it's promoted in mental health circles as some naively optimistic, 'think-yourself-better' cure. There's only so much changing your outlook can do. It supposes that changing your outlook is possible and desirable as well as beneficial. I agree that it's healthy to challenge your assumptions and beliefs about the world, but challenge only results in change if you conclude that your existing beliefs are false. Beliefs aren't a choice but a consequence of what you're convinced is the truth. I can say I believe something but unless I'm convinced then I'm just lying to myself, which I don't think is helpful. Neither is believing something that's false solely because it makes you feel good. Depression may be triggered by the events in the news, the madness of the world we live in and it's upsetting nature. Being told to 'think positively' about this seems like asking me to delude myself with mental gymnastics. This is frustrating as it's offered as a 'cure' by pretty much any mental health treatment provider these days, regardless of the root of someone's problems.

    Even with a positive, hopeful outlook, it's not always enough. It might help you get through hard times somewhat, but hope alone doesn't translate into better real-world outcomes. It almost feels like 'The Secret' – the claim that you can basically visualise things into existence. We see the successes these methods have produced but not those who tried unsuccessfully. In any population there are some people for whom things will improve in a given time period, regardless of what they do. That's just basic statistics, as people's states vary even without treatment. Positive thinking can help if it motivates you to act and create the changes you want to see, but alone it assumes mental health problems occur in isolation from the world outside your mind. Realistically, there's only so much you can possibly do, which this doesn't seem to recognise.

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  8. We are all subjects in this experiment, called life, in which the universe seeks to perfect itself.

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  9. some people comment like aw yeah it is my philosophy i don't care any thing just stoicism." but actually it is not something like that. it is closer to POZITIVIZM through 4 Virtues

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  10. isnt it called delusion when you convince your self of something that's not. just like trump does

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  11. "The problem is not really the problem. Your attitude to a problem is really the problem.' – Captain Jack Sparrow

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  12. Stoicism doesn't work when you are swarmed by liberals, they just blame you for what the other white men did anyway.
    Bye bye civilization.

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  13. Yet this Philosophy was not perfect, Stoicism was used by the 'Optimate' or 'Conservative' political faction in the Roman Republic as reasoning for why the Senate should keep hegemony over the Plebeian Assemblies and more generally why the Aristocracy should continue to suppress the Proletariat masses. Just look at Cato the Younger, or Metellus Scipio, who attempted to block and curtail the Grain Dole, starving the impoverished, by calling this process 'un-stoic', because it dissuades individuals from pursuing the Stoic goals of Temperance and Courage. I wouldn't be so quick to heap praise upon this school of thought, while interesting it is by no means perfect as many in the comments seem to think.

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  14. 3:38 This is not correct. Mendela was communist and he was only for Africans, not for Whie South Africans.

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  15. I have so much association with stoicism… this is as if seeing light in every events of life even in the worst..

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  16. One of the best explanations of Stoicism out there.

    Check us out if you want to put Stoicism into practice.

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  17. I truly believe that Stoicism is a way of life that will bring about true tranquility and happiness

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  18. As one we must become and to move forward we shall to believe is to see failure is success and taste better than victory if view and depicted within the mind correctly at a time of your own.

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  19. Many similarities between Buddhism as well a long with other great thinkers and philosophers through out time. Seems to find inner peace and to tell with the suffering that is inherent in existence, one must learn to control their minds.

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  20. Can't help but remind people of white racism while you are explaining stoicism, tedtalk I'm not surprised.

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  21. Logo therapy is not based on stoicism. Stoicism is centered on bringing oneself in line with reason. Logo therapy is about finding reas

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  22. Everything is connected through a web of cause and effect

    Marcus Aurelius's work inspired Nelson Mandela many centuries later*

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  23. I think that stoicism is very similar to the values America was built on and is a philosophy that people follow to achieve the American dream

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  24. I lost my meditations book by Marcus Aurelius, I hope someone found it and read to change their lives for the better.

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  25. This thing resonates hella with the hindu philosophy of bhagwad geeta:
    The logos concept is the same as tha concept of karma both works on cause and effect, every action will have reaction
    Not to indulge in temporary pleasures, similarly lord krishna asked arjuna to not to be clouded by the thoughts of pleasure, pain, emotions, etc. They all are subtle rather just focus on the goal which you are pursuing

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  26. Guys I found this to be the best book I found on Stoicism, really good information https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0813RQL49

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  27. This sounds like some unbalance bullS***💩, I’m glad I don’t believe in any of this old ancient foreign logos (name brands) titles, pyramid scams & scammers, a cast system
    High Med lo……. sun moon stars

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  28. Ataraxia is equivalent to the Buddhist virtue of Equanimity. It is not equivalent to their concept of Nirvana.

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  29. I wish this was thought in school, could you imagine generations of stoics in our society and how amazing that’d be?

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  30. We don’t control what happens. But we can control how we react to events which shifts events depending on how you reacted. Which basically tells you that you CAN control what happens through this. And of course, there is the LAW of ATTRACTION

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  31. Christian Theologian Thomas Aquinas admired these virtues in Stoicism because it being similar to what Paul said; , “For our light affliction (things we go through, trouble), which is but for a moment, works (strengthens) for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;” 2 Corinthians 4:17,18. Our troubles (stress and related effects) are quite visible and not imaginary, but what the word offers in explanation is that there are also, ( at the same time of seen troubles) those things “unseen” , as these unseen things are eternal, and have greater weight for our good, in the grand scheme of things. As Paul went on to say;
    “While we look not at the things which are seen (this world and its troubles), but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal (don’t last long); but the things which are not seen are eternal (last forever).” Basically saying; if we fix our eyes on this world only,(its hard times) this can cause us stress, but if we look to what lies ahead, we can have hope, no matter what comes. For the Creator said; we shall have troubles in this world, yet I have overcome the world (John 16:33)! Not only that, but promise’s he will be with us, even until the end of this world, (Matthew 28:20).
    Hopefully Seneca, the famous Roman Stoic philosopher and writer, had this hope by faith believing when facing his death. Since this Proconsul Junius Gallio, mentioned here in Acts 18:12-18, who was the delegated Roman authority of that area, was also older brother of Seneca. It follows that because of this “connection”, Seneca would be familiar with Paul and the Gospel As Paul was in Rome under house arrest (receiving friends, Acts 28:30)), the same time Seneca was still alive, around A.D. 60.

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