The Rise Of The Soviet Navy – History Documentary

The Rise Of The Soviet Navy – History Documentary

this is must bar guided-missile
helicopter carrier operating in the Mediterranean under initial voyage in
1968 years of a new breed of warship the
Soviet economy is now willing to support cheap hotels that tomorrow’s Soviet sea
power will be characterized by more sophisticated and capable ships
operating at greater distances from the motherland the Navy of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics is in current staffing the second ranking Navy in the
world one by one ship by ship Soviet sea power shows the flag makes its presence
felt the red Navy today has strategic mobility it moves ships great distances
from home ports and transfers them freely between the Baltic the Arctic the
Black Sea and throughout the Mediterranean the Russian system of
interconnecting internal waterways permits the transfer of submarines
destroyers and small ships between the northern fleet the Baltic Fleet a
Caspian flotilla and the Black Sea Fleet the northern sea route provides even
more mobility during late summer and fall the northern fleet based on the
mermen post is the primary Soviet fleet it ships and submarines cruise the
Arctic and the entire Atlantic aircraft from this northern region can fly as far
as Havana and have been seen on reconnaissance flights near Newfoundland
the Soviet Pacific Ocean fleet operates from a system of bases from the polar
regions down to the corrals to Vladivostok the rise of the Russian Navy parallels
the emergence of the Soviet Union as a strong competitor for world markets the
rapid expansion of her sea power has enabled Russia to project her national
interests around the world Imperial Russia under tsar nicholas ii a
major power at a ranking world naval power Imperial Russia boasts two main fleets
the Baltic Fleet in the West in the South the Black Sea Fleet in Caspian
flotilla the East the Amur River and Siberian Tatars in the Imperial fleet of
World War one Bazaar can count some 11 dreadknots 12 battleships 22 cruisers
and at least 56 submarines this fleet will be surrendered scuttled
or sunk in the years of revolution which will sweep away old Russia the royal family Tsar Tsarina Crown
Prince and for Worthen Sizzix princess Anastasia a young girl rollerskating on
the deck of the royal yacht across Europe at Sarajevo Archduke Ferdinand
walks to his destiny Europe is a war Russia fights a desperate in the south the black sea fleet mounts
are successful and previous assault against the Turks but Russia finds
herself cut off in the open Mediterranean by guns and minds in the
tricky streets the war is unpopular for leadership at home and on the
battlefield is inept Russia suffers more wounded missing and dead than any other
combatant her casualty rate 76% the October Revolution 1917 highlighted
by a navy revolt the sailors at Kronstadt naval base march on the Louvre
palace in this Soviet film version the cruiser Aurora standing off in the neva
fires and the palace revolution is in motion and within months the Czar and
his family are murdered the revolution becomes a civil war the battle rages for
three years across the motherland Admiral Kolchak aboard one of his ships
he receives heavy allied backing as he leaves the White Russian forces in
Siberia he will be defeated and executed by the Bolsheviks one of the most famous sailors of the
Revolutionary Navy sailor hero de Benko he aggresses his men he and his comrades
will emerge from the Civil War with what a shell of a Navy in the Black Sea a Russian battleship is
torpedoed and sunk by a Russian destroyer seven battleships two cruisers
and eight destroyers submarines and other ships are lost at Sevastopol
two-thirds of all the warships at number assist are run aground or blown up by
their crews and the once-proud Baltic Fleet only a
handful of ships arrived but worst days are to come March 1921
again the Kronstadt sailors revolt in a second rebellion this time against the
Bolsheviks demanding reforms promised by the Bolsheviks but not delivered in
these government films the Red Army storms the bastion constant over the
frozen Gulf of Finland the defenders hold off three attacks and when overrun
and the survivors are shot the navy dishonored and all but destroyed stands
condemned and Lenin not only distrust the navy but doubts its usefulness 1924 Soviet Russia gains recognition
from Western powers but the father of the Revolution then in his death the
curtain falls on the first act of the Communist experiment Stalin begins the next act as he sets in
motion his iron rule by 1927 to recondition Czarist battleships operate
in the Baltic a small defensive Navy begins to emerge under Stalin’s regime
the first five-year plan begins in 1928 to build up Russia’s industry and her
defenses the Navy receives low priority its first new ships are destroyers
torpedo boats submarines and cruises for defense of the homeland battleships and
aircraft carriers will have to wait for later years aircraft construction and
parachute training are a part of the new military buildup it becomes a public
sport as well in 1932 the Imperial Japanese Army
invades northern Manchuria Stallion orders the buildup of a pacific ocean
fleet 1933 the start of the second five-year plan the Soviet Union
emphasizes construction of a submarine fleet aimed at becoming the largest
undersea force in the world within five years
the Stalin White Sea Baltic canal is completed and Stalin is aboard the
flagship of the new northern flotilla and the first trip from Leningrad to
Murmansk for the first time the canal offers Russia an exit from the Baltic to
the White Sea and to the North Atlantic free of foreign control and I believe
sincerely that the most impelling motive that has lain behind the conversations
which was successfully concluded yesterday between Russia and the United
States was the desire of both countries for peace the desire for the
strengthening of the peace forever with new naval bases in the Arctic and
Pacific the 17th Party Congress calls for an all-out warship building program
as part of the third five-year plan three former gazzarri’s battleships are
modernized and fitted with larger caliber main guns the construction of
six heavy cruisers is ordered but own suspicions from Kronstadt still persist
commanding officers of Imperial Navy background are particularly pressured to
conform the Communist doctrine the commissar an officer second in rank only
to the captain is aboard each ship to ensure party loyalty in the 1930s naval
officers regained status and some independence from the kama science but
this is short-lived the shadow of the Great Purge falls upon
the nation and the Navy the Great Purge the years of Terror studying’s enemies
real and imaginary are executed over half of the members of the 17th Party
Congress are shot hundreds of thousands fall in the
bloodbath and the people fearful of the truth must pretend it isn’t happening the estimate half of the red navy’s
officer car is death the commander in chief of the Navy purged commanders of
the Baltic Fleet the northern fleet the Black Sea Fleet first all eight Admirals
alive at the start of the purge are liquidated deployed an August 24th 1939
the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a non-aggression treaty within a month Hitler invades Poland
Stalin follows suit and occupies eastern Poland is vital German naval units move
on the 3d port of Danzig and take ports from the Polish cover to the north along
the Baltic Stalin forces Latvia Lithuania and Estonia to give up bases
to the Red Army and Navy now the soviet union wants finnish naval
bases and airfields but finland resists and the russians strike across the
border a 105 days the finns hold and then the end overpowered outgunned but
not out fat finland grants Soviet demands now on the brink of Hitler’s
invasion three five-year plans have seen the key laid for over 500 warships
including 82 destroyers and 14 cruisers other than 300 of these ships are
already in commission pride of the fleet however is the largest submarine force
in the world over 200 submarines and almost 100 more under construction the
Naval Air Arm 2000 aircraft but inferior woefully antiquated
no match for German strength and aircraft artillery a dramatic increase
in number but fleet bases are judged vulnerable to air attack Russian
strategists fear the overwhelming strength of the Luftwaffe will imperil
fleet operations June 1940 the Soviet Union occupies all the Baltic States
she also moves on Romania the lower danube it’s now in Russian hands on the
eve of the German attack Soviet shipyards are busy 219 ships under
construction here lie the dreams of the Soviet Navy of the future here are hulls
of great cruisers and battleships which will never be completed many the Nazis
will seize as they slash in the Russian Soviet fleet bases are vulnerable from
the land the German plan cut off isolate and eliminate the red Navy as a factor
in the war the navy turns to defense and philanthropy a separation and support of
the Red Army the Tenth Army Corps is evacuated from the hanka Peninsula and
from Tallinn on the Baltic in the south the Black Sea Fleet infantry served with
the Red Army as it is driven toward the Caucasus thousands are cut off and taken
by the Germans during the first years of war Soviet
naval operations at sea are confined to minor actions patrol and supply of bases
in the north the film’s quickly kept the White Sea Baltic canal with the Germans
they blockade the Gulf of Finland largely containing the red submarine
fleet a few break the blockade and operate in the shallow Baltic but
throughout the war Russia’s huge submarine fleet is of
little use except for limited action north of Norway in the Arctic 1944 the
Red Army is solidly on the offensive the navy supports another 100 antabuse
landings on inland waterways behind and on the flanks of the enemy in the south
landings in the Crimea in the West the Baltic moon sound Island landings
through the largest Soviet amphibious operations of the war River flotilla
saved the army they range and controlled the Danube the Nupur the Volga and other
key waterways but during all of World War two major Soviet surface units do
not fight a single battle either in coastal waters or at sea aircraft account for more than one half
of the enemy ships sunk naval aircraft fly over three hundred thousand sorties
and destroy over five thousand enemy aircraft although the Soviet Navy wins little as
a result of NATO action during the war it gains important strategic prizes in
the post-war world they regained the former Baltic States and all east
pressure formerly part of Germany the Black Sea Fleet now controls the mouth
of the Danube and enjoys access to ports and the new satellite countries of
Romania and Bulgaria even though the Soviet Union has spawned only ten days
against the Japanese in the Pacific it now has control of parts of Manchuria
Korea all of the oil-rich island of Sakhalin and the strategic coral island
chain but the red navy’s greatest gain is the opportunity now to finally
exploit its long-planned role as a dynamic force in a broaden national
strategy with the fall of germany and japan the USSR is no longer surrounded
by powerful maritime enemies now she may begin again to rebuild both her economy
and her Navy the Soviet Union immediately registers
all captive ships and again the Soviet Navy must for the time being concentrate
on coastal defense with promise of major warships to wait but not for long the
post-war Navy places the Soviet naval officer in a special class a conscious
effort is underway to create an elite tour and foster naval tradition even in
the cadet fair usually drawn from officers families East European
satellites are directed to rebuild shipyards and provide ships for the new
Soviet Merchant Marine and high seas fishing fleet while Soviet shipyards
will concentrate on warship construction polish East German Bulgarian Romanian
Yugoslavia and Albanian ports are now available to Soviet ships 19:53 and Stalin is dead Khrushchev rises to power and with
income vital decisions as to the level of technology to be employed in the Navy
of the future now the Soviet Union looks to nuclear power it develops long-range
cruise missiles launched from aircraft ships or submarines as well as submarine
launched ballistic missiles but Soviet CPR progresses in a pattern
which recognizes all elements of maritime power warships are just one
part what emerges is a collective national force a balanced modern
merchant fleets oceanographic service and high seas Navy all under unified
government direction in the early 60s the Soviet merchant fleet is in 11th
place among the fleet’s of the world 1965 the merchant fleet of the Soviet
Union now ranks in sixth place 1968 there are now almost 1,400 seagoing
merchant then the 1980 goal is to more than double the size of the present
merchant fleet over 80% of this fleet is less than 10 years old and the Soviet
Union is striving to attain the capability of carrying 75% of their
trade in ships flying the red flag these ships call it some 800 ports in 90
countries to service the world markets for oil the russians have over 300
tankers Western suppliers have been dislodged from their long-established
markets by these ships the Soviet high seas fishing fleet is the most modern in
the world with 4,000 vessels it’s catch has more than doubled in the past ten
years this fishing fleet supplies the needs of
a great many emerging African nations Senegal Ghana Nigeria Congo Liberia
Sierra Leone Guinea and Egypt part of this huge state-owned enterprise is
stationed in the Atlantic within a hundred miles of Boston its units
operate on station for months at a time the Soviet oceanographic effort employs
over 150 ships and 2,500 scientists and technicians in the past decade the
Soviet Academy of Sciences has made important gains in Antarctic research I
studies and marine life observations are being made in the vast areas of both
polar regions to support the Soviet effort in oceanography
there is an extensive network of marine scientific stations along the vast
Soviet coastline north of Japan special research attention is given to the
Kurile Islands this balanced ocean force the REB Navy under Fleet Admiral
Gorshkov it’s organized in four main fleets the northern fleets
the Baltic Fleet the Black Sea Fleet and the Pacific Ocean fleet we’ll make their ships harder to
identify throughout the world the Soviet Navy makes random changes in the pendant
numbers of submarines and ships as they transit freely from home waters on
occasion numbers are even painted out mobility is the key to the present day
red fleet now by using ports in client and satellite countries they have better
access to the North Atlantic and Mediterranean than in years past in the
Mediterranean replenishment Anchorage’s provide logistics support without
international obligations in this replenishment anchorage to dawn glass
tenders support submarines cruisers and destroyers depending on the season and
the political climate the soviets have deployed thirty to fifty warships and
auxiliaries from the Black Sea and other fleets to the Mediterranean
today the Soviet Navy is benefiting from the farsighted planning of the 50s where
submarine force is the largest in the world approximately 350 embassy craft
all built since the end of World War two about one in seven is nuclear-powered thirty-five can fire ICBMs from beneath
the sea and over 40 can fire the cruise missile the Naval Air Arm has some 800
fixed-wing aircraft including 150 helicopters and 500 jet bombers most of
which can fire cruise missiles this Task Force patrolling the
Mediterranean reflects the success of the Soviet fleet building program a
product of the early Khrushchev era is the kinder class guided missile cruiser hirama Minh includes surface-to-air
guided missiles for defense of a task force from air attack among 200
destroyer or escort ships in the red fleet six or more of his class are
operational in 1969 another new design in the modern Soviet Navy discussion
class guided missile frigate the largest warship in the world having gas turbine
propulsion she is capable of 35 knots this is Moskva she is the largest Soviet
Navy ship armed with guided missiles guns torpedoes and helicopters boasting
an impressive array of sophisticated electronic senses she represents the
current high-water mark in Russian ship design today Soviet ships can patrol off any
coast in the world they may be oceanographic research ships merchant
vessels fishing trawlers submarines or surface warships but they are all part
of the same maritime force closely commanded through a modern
system of communications they can respond rapidly anywhere in the world to
any situation this has been the rise of the Soviet Navy of Soviet sea power
avasara street of 1917 to the present modern mobile well coordinated ocean
force and this ship must be’ symbolizes a challenge a challenge of soviet sea
power to Western preeminence on the oceans of the world

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